Once the living quarters of the Cossack chiefs, the Ataman Palace now houses an exhibition that traces the development of Don Cossack culture from the 16th century to the present day. There are some great artefacts, including an impressive 400-year-old sundial and plenty of antique Cossack weapons. Household items, clothing and artwork are also on display. Upstairs is a diorama of Starocherkasskaya, with an accompanying multimedia show (in Russian) about the town's history.
Adjacent to the palace is the 1761 Church of Our Lady of the Don, which was the private church of the Cossack chiefs.