Mauritius is often cited as an example of racial and religious harmony, and compared with most countries it is, as on the surface there are few signs of conflict. However, racial divisions are still apparent between the Hindu majority and the Muslim and Creole minorities, and these tensions constitute one of the few potential political flashpoints. Such issues usually only surface during elections, when parties aren't averse to playing the race card.
Family & the Role of Women
In general, each ethnic group maintains a way of life similar to that found in their countries of origin, even if they are second- or third-generation Mauritian.
Often several generations live together under one roof and the main social unit is the extended family – as evidenced by the size of family parties at a Sunday picnic. There is minimal social-security provision in Mauritius; people rely on their family in times of need. Mauritians are usually married by the age of 25 and the majority of wives stay home to raise the family, while husbands earn the daily bread. Arranged marriages are still the norm among many Indian families, while the Hindu caste system has also been replicated to some degree. Among all groups, religion and religious institutions continue to play a central role in community life.
As with elsewhere this very traditional pattern is starting to break down as the younger generation grows more individualistic and more Westernised. Young people are far more likely to socialise with people from other communities, and intermarriage is on the rise. The fertility rate of 1.74 children per woman is one of the lowest outside of Western countries, suggesting that young Mauritians are taking longer to marry and are having fewer children once they do.
Other forces for change are the growth of consumerism and the emergence of a largely Indian and Chinese middle class. Middle-class couples are more likely to set up their own home and have fewer children, while the wife may go out to work. Statistics also show a slight decline in the number of marriages, while the divorce rate has doubled over the last 25 years.
Women's equality still has a long way to go in Mauritius. Many women have to accept low-paid, unskilled jobs, typically in a textile factory or as cleaners. Even highly qualified women can find it hard to get promotions in the private sector, though they do better in the public service. In 2003 the government passed a Sex Discrimination Act and set up an independent unit to investigate sex-discrimination cases, including sexual harassment at work. The unit is also charged with raising awareness levels and educating employers about equal opportunity. Results have, so far, been mixed.
Adult literacy rates are similar for men (94.9%) and women (90.7%), while female students tend to remain longer at school than boys. The unemployment rate for women under 25 years of age (31.2% in 2016) was considerably higher than for men of the same age (18.3%).
People of Mauritius
Figures on ethnicity are difficult to come by – Mauritius has deliberately not included such questions on its census since 1972. The country is made up of five ethnic groups: Indo-Mauritian (roughly 68%), Creole (27%), Sino-Mauritian (3%), Franco-Mauritian (1%) and the new kids on the block – South African expats (1%). Another small group you might come across are the Chagos Islanders.
The Indian population (the majority of which is Hindu) is descended from the labourers who came to the island to work the cane fields. Nowadays Indians form the backbone of the labouring and agricultural community and own many of the island's small- and medium-sized businesses, typically in manufacturing and the retail trade. Central Plateau towns such as Rose Hill have a definite Indian character.
Indians also tend to be prominent in civic life. Local elections are often racially aligned, and since Indo-Mauritians are in the majority, they tend to win at the polls. The prime minister between 2003 and 2005, Franco-Mauritian Paul Bérenger, was the first (and still only) non-Indian at the helm in the country's history.
After the Indo-Mauritians, the next largest group is the Creoles, descendants of African slaves, with varying amounts of European ancestry. Creoles as a whole form the most disadvantaged sector of society. Despite the fact that all forms of discrimination are illegal under the Mauritian constitution, it is widely recognised that the Creole minority has been socially, economically and politically marginalised.
The majority work in low-paid jobs or eke out a living from fishing or subsistence farming, and it's a vicious circle. Creoles find it harder to get work, partly because of low levels of literacy, but few Creole children complete secondary school because they're needed to help support the family. Expectations are also lower – and so it goes on.
Rodrigues, where Creoles make up 98% of the population, is the epicentre of Mauritian Creole culture.
Mauritius' 30,000 Sino-Mauritians are involved mostly in commerce. Despite their small numbers the Chinese community plays a disproportionate role in the country's economy, though they tend to avoid politics. Most came to the country as self-employed entrepreneurs and settled in the towns (particularly Port Louis), though many villages have at least one Chinese-run store.
Franco-Mauritians & South Africans
Franco-Mauritians are the descendants of the grands blancs (rich whites), who were the first European settlers in Mauritius and who quickly parcelled the best arable land out among themselves in the 18th century. Franco-Mauritians own most of the sugar mills, banks and other big businesses, and tend to live in palatial private residences in the hills around Curepipe. They also own almost all the luxurious holiday houses along the coast. Many have decamped completely to live in South Africa, Australia and France. In fact there are now more South African expats living on the island (congregated on the west coast) than there are Franco-Mauritians.
Despite being a relatively young country with a diverse population, and although ethnicity is often a primary touchstone of identity for many Mauritians, a strong sense of national identity continues to transcend racial and cultural ties.
Of the various forces binding Mauritians together, the most important is language – not the official language of English, but Creole, which is the first language of an estimated 86% of the population and understood by virtually all Mauritians. Another common bond is that everyone is an immigrant or descended from immigrants – there were no First People in Mauritius. Food and music are other unifiers, as is the importance placed on family life.
Mauritius is also a small, tight-knit community. Living in such close proximity breaks down barriers and increases understanding between different groups. Respect for others and tolerance are deeply ingrained in all sectors of society, despite the occasional flare-up of racial tension.
As a result of the ongoing economic boom and political stability, overall living standards have improved in recent years and the majority of houses now have mains water and electricity. The gap between rich and poor, however, is widening. It's estimated that the top 20% of the population earns 45% of the total income and that around 10% of people live below the poverty line. A labourer's wage is just Rs 6000 per month, while a teacher might earn Rs 12,000. You'll see a few people begging around the markets and mosques, but the visible presence of poverty on the streets is relatively discreet.
Mauritians place great importance on education – not just to get a better job but as a goal in its own right. Lawyers, doctors and teachers are regarded with tremendous respect. The pinnacle of success for many is to work in the civil service, though this is beginning to change as salaries rise among business people.
There is a close link between religion and race in Mauritius and a remarkable degree of religious tolerance. Mosques, churches and Hindu temples can be found within a stone's throw of each other in many parts of the country and we know of one case in Floréal where they are separated only by a shared wall.
Official figures put the number of Hindus at 48.5% of the population, and all are Indian in origin or ethnicity. Festivals play a central role in the Hindu faith and the calendar is packed with colourful celebrations.
There's a certain amount of resentment towards Hindus in Mauritius, not for religious reasons but because the Hindu majority dominates the country's political life and its administration. Up until now, with the economy in full swing, this has merely resulted in grumbling about discrimination and 'jobs for the boys', but there's a fear this might change if the economy really begins to falter.
Around one-quarter of the population is Roman Catholic. Catholicism is practised by most Creoles, and it has picked up a few voodoo overtones over the years. Most Franco-Mauritians are also Catholic and a few Chinese and Indians have converted, largely through marriage.
Muslims make up roughly one-fifth of the population. Like the Hindus, Mauritian Muslims originally came from India. In Mauritius, where Islam exists in close proximity to other religions, it tends to be fairly liberal. Attendance at mosque is high and many Muslim women wear the hijab.
Sino-Mauritians are the least conspicuous in their worship. The one big exception is Chinese New Year, which is celebrated in Port Louis with great gusto. There are also a few Chinese temples scattered around the capital.
Feature: Diego Garcia & The Chagossian Betrayal
One of the most prolonged betrayals in British colonial history is that surrounding the secret exile of the Chagos Islanders from their homeland in the 1960s and 1970s, in order to lease the main island, Diego Garcia, to the USA for use as a military base.
The Chagos Islands were excised from Mauritian territory by the British prior to independence in 1965, and Mauritius and the UK continue to dispute the sovereignty of the islands. The islanders were 'resettled' in Mauritius and the Seychelles between 1965 and 1973. Some 5000 now live in abject poverty in the slums of Port Louis, where they continue to fight for their right to return home. The islanders won derisory compensation of £4 million from the British in 1982, which was paid out to the poverty-stricken islanders in return for them signing away their rights – many did not realise what the legal documents they were signing meant.
In 2000 the UK High Court ruled that the Chagossians had been evicted illegally and upheld their right to be repatriated. Nothing happened, so the Chagossians went back to court. In October 2003 the judge rejected their claim for further compensation, though he acknowledged that the British government had treated the islanders 'shamefully' and that the compensation had been inadequate. In May 2007 the Chagossians won a further case at the Court of Appeal in London, in which the government's behaviour was condemned as unlawful and an abuse of power. The judges in the case also refused to place a stay on the ruling, meaning the Chagossians were free to return to all islands (with the exception of Diego Garcia itself) with immediate effect. In 2008 the case was overturned.
The court cases rolled on. In 2015 the international Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague unanimously held that the UK's proclamation of a Marine Protected Area (MPA) around the Chagos Archipelago in 2010 was in violation of international law. In 2016 the British Government confirmed that it would not allow the Chagossians to return to their islands. In 2017 the UN General Assembly voted 94 to 15 to refer the case to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in order to clarify the islands' legal status.
The resulting ICJ judgment in favour of Mauritius and the Chagos Islanders in 2019 was scathing in its criticism of the UK. One judge described the situation as “an unlawful act of continuing character” and concluded that the UK was “under an obligation to bring an end to its administration of the Chagos Archipelago as rapidly as possible”.
Despite the ruling, the ICJ’s decisions are not legally binding and the British government has given every indication that it will resist any calls for it to hand back the islands.
Author and documentary film-maker John Pilger gave his angle on the story in his documentary Stealing a Nation (2004). You can watch it online. Further information and ways to help the Chagossians can be found at www.chagossupport.org.uk. For additional information on the Chagos Islanders, check out David Vine's book Island of Shame (2009).
Mauritian literature and fine arts are firmly based in the French tradition. The country's music, however, is African in origin and is very much alive and kicking.
Mauritius has provided the backdrop for a number of historical novels, but it's the growing profile of local writers that makes Mauritians most proud.
Music & Dance
You'll hear séga, the music of Creole culture, everywhere nowadays, but in the early 20th century it fell seriously out of fashion. Its revival in the early 1950s is credited to the Creole singer Ti Frère, whose song 'Anita' has become a classic. Though he died in 1992, Ti Frère is still the country's most popular séga star. More recent Creole groups and singers with a wide following include Cassiya, Fanfan and the prolific Jean-Claude Gaspard.
Séga evolved slightly differently in Rodrigues. Here the drum plays a more prominent role in what's known as séga tambour. The island's accordion bands are also famous for their surprising repertoire, which includes waltzes, polkas, quadrilles and Scottish reels. Over the years these were learned from passing European sailors and gradually absorbed into the local folk music. They're now an essential part of any Rodriguan knees-up.
A newer Mauritian musical form – seggae, which blends elements of séga and reggae – was invented by Creole musician Kaya. With his band Racine Tatane, Kaya gave a voice to dissatisfied Creoles around the island. Tragically the singer died in police custody in February 1999. Following in Kaya's footsteps, Ras Natty Baby and his Natty Rebels are one of the most popular seggae groups; sales gained an extra boost when Ras Natty Baby was imprisoned for heroin trafficking in 2003.
Recently ragga, a blend of house music, traditional Indian music and reggae, has been gaining a following. Mauritian ragga groups include Black Ayou and the Authentic Steel Brothers.
Historically Mauritian artists took their lead from what was happening in Europe, particularly France. Bizarrely some of the 18th- and 19th-century engravings and oils of Mauritian landscapes you see could almost be mistaken for European scenes. The classical statue of Paul and Virginie in Port Louis' Blue Penny Museum and the one of King Edward VII at the city's Champ de Mars Racecourse were both created by Mauritius' best-known sculptor, Prosper d'Épinay.
Contemporary Mauritian art tends to be driven by the tourist market. One artist you'll find reproduced everywhere is Vaco Baissac, whose work is instantly recognisable by the blocks of colour outlined in black, like a stained-glass window.
Other commercially successful artists include Danielle Hitié, who produces minutely detailed renderings of markets as well as rural scenes, and Françoise Vrot, known for her very expressive portraits of women fieldworkers. Both artists are exhibited in galleries in Grand Baie, where Vrot also has her studio.
Keep an eye out for exhibitions by more innovative contemporary artists, such as Hervé Masson, Serge Constantin, Henry Koombes and Khalid Nazroo. All have had some success on the international scene, though they're less visible locally.
Much of Mauritius' architectural heritage has become buried under a sea of concrete, but thankfully a handful of colonial-era mansions survive, and it's these that provide the architectural highlights for visitors to the country.
In 2003 the government set up a National Heritage Fund charged with preserving the country's historic buildings. The plantation houses from the 18th and 19th centuries have fared best, and you'll still see them standing in glorious isolation amid the cane fields. Many are privately owned and closed to the public. One such is Le Réduit, near Moka, which is now the president's official residence. Others have been converted into museums and restaurants.
The first French settlers naturally brought with them building styles from home. Over the years the architecture evolved until it became supremely well suited to the hot, humid tropics. It's for this reason that so many of the grand plantation houses have survived the ravages of time.
In many of these buildings, flourishes that appear to be ornamental – vaulted roofs and decorative pierced screens, for example – all serve to keep the occupants cool and dry. The most distinctive feature is the shingled roof with ornamental turrets and rows of attic windows. These wedding-cake touches conceal a vaulted roof, which allows the air to circulate. Another characteristic element is the wide, airy varangue (veranda), where raffia blinds, fans and pot plants create a cooling humidity.
The roofs, windows and overhangs are usually lined with delicate, lace-like lambrequins (decorative wooden borders), which are purely ornamental. They vary from simple, repetitive floral patterns to elaborate pierced friezes; in all cases a botanical theme predominates.
Lambrequins, shingled roofs and verandas or wrought-iron balconies are also found in colonial-era town houses. The more prestigious buildings were constructed in brick, or even stone, and so are better able to withstand cyclones and termites. In Port Louis, Government House and other buildings lining Place d'Armes are all fine examples.
Feature: Colonial Architecture: Our Pick
The following colonial-era mansions are all open to the public (with the exception of Government House) and well worth visiting. The buildings have innate historical and aesthetic values, but visiting them also makes a statement that these are places of beauty and value, which may just lead to more of them being preserved.
A few attempts at daring contemporary structures have been made, but the most prestigious in recent times has been Port Louis' Le Caudan Waterfront development, which remains a work in progress. Given its location at the very heart of the capital, the architects decided to incorporate elements of the traditional architecture found around the city's Place d'Armes. Further inspiration came from the nearby stone-and-steel dockyard buildings.
Perhaps Mauritius' most striking modern architectural creation is the MCB Building in Quartre Bornes, an eye-like structure by the M1 motorway as you approach Port Louis from the south. Completed in 2010, it's a model of sustainability with abundant solar panels and clever use of natural air flows.
Mauritius packs a lot into quite a small space, and the beauty of its landforms – the coral reefs, the dramatic rocky outcrops – plays a key role in so many of the country's attractions, either as a stirring backdrop or as destinations worth exploring. But wildlife is where Mauritius' environmental story gets really interesting, from giant tortoises to critically endangered bird species making a comeback.
Mauritius is the peak of an enormous volcanic chain that also includes Réunion, though it is much older and therefore less rugged than its neighbour.
The island's highest mountains are found in the southwest, from where the land drops slightly to a central plateau before climbing again to the chain of oddly shaped mountains behind Port Louis and the Montagne Bambous to the east. Beyond these mountains a plain slopes gently down to the north coast.
Unlike Réunion, Mauritius has no active volcanoes, though remnants of volcanic activity abound. Extinct craters and volcanic lakes, such as the Trou aux Cerfs crater in Curepipe and the Grand Bassin holy lake, are good examples. Over the aeons the volcanoes generated millions of lava boulders, much to the chagrin of indentured farm labourers who had to clear the land for sugar cane. Nonetheless, heaps of boulders still dot the landscape and some that have been piled into tidy pyramids are listed monuments!
Mauritius also includes a number of widely scattered inhabited islands, of which the most important is Rodrigues, 600km to the northeast. Rodrigues is another ancient volcanic peak and is surrounded by a lagoon twice the size of the island itself.
Mauritius stakes territorial claim to the Chagos Archipelago, unilaterally declared the British Indian Ocean Territory by the UK and controversially ceded to the US military, despite international courts ruling in favour of Mauritius and the islands' former inhabitants.
The story of Mauritian wildlife certainly didn't end with the dodo. In fact the island's reputation for extinction has been transformed in recent years by its dramatic success in saving endangered species.
The best source of information is the Mauritian Wildlife Foundation, which was founded in 1984 to protect and manage the country's many rare species. The MWF vigorously supports the creation of national parks and reserves. It has had significant success in restoring the populations of several endangered bird species and in conserving endemic vegetation. While you're welcome to visit its office to get information, it can be difficult to find. In any event its website is a useful resource and contacting it by email with specific questions usually elicits a response. A visit to MWF-run Île aux Aigrettes is a highlight of any visit to the island, while Grande Montagne Nature Reserve on Rodrigues is a growing ecotourism destination.
Birds are the main wildlife drawcard, with some remarkable conservation success stories. Otherwise, tortoises are making a comeback after the dark colonial years.
Almost half of the 700 flowering plant species found in Mauritius are unique to these islands. Many of these endemic plants have fared poorly in competition with introduced plants such as guava and privet, and have been depleted by introduced deer, pigs and monkeys. General forest clearance and the establishment of crop monocultures have exacerbated the problem, so that less than 1% of Mauritius' original forest is intact.
For a tropical island Mauritius isn't big on coconut palms. Instead introduced casuarinas (also known as filaos) fringe most of the beaches. These tall, wispy trees act as windbreaks and grow well in sandy soil. The government planted them along the shores to help stop erosion, though it's doubtful whether they have had the desired effect.
Other impressive and highly visible trees are the giant Indian banyan and the brilliant red flowering flamboyant (flame tree).
Staying with shades of red, one flower you will see in abundance is anthurium, with its single, glossy petal and protruding yellow spadix. The plant originated in South America and was introduced to Mauritius in the late 19th century. The flower, which at first sight you'd swear was plastic, can last up to three weeks after being cut and is therefore a popular display plant. Now grown in commercial quantities for export, it is used to spruce up hotels and public meeting places.
The easiest place to find these and other plant species is in the botanical gardens at Pamplemousses.
Mangroves are enjoying a renaissance in Mauritius. Originally cut down to reduce swamp areas where malarial mosquitoes could breed, they've been discovered to be an important part of the food chain for tropical fish, and thus large projects to develop mangrove areas have been undertaken, particularly on the east coast. They are also thriving on Rodrigues, where they have been introduced to prevent silting of the lagoon.
Feature: The Mauritian Wildlife Foundation
The Mauritian Wildlife Foundation is continuing the excellent work already done to reintroduce previously endangered species. In recent years it has reintroduced the pink pigeon and the echo parakeet into the Vallée de Ferney, as well as the Mauritius cuckoo-shrike and Mauritius paradise flycatcher, though the latter two species are present in small numbers and will take some time before they're regularly seen by visitors. It's also responsible for numerous ecotourism projects on Mauritius and Rodrigues. Check the website for updates.
You can help support the MWF by spending a day on Île aux Aigrettes and undertaking tasks such as weeding invasive species, adopting an endangered species such as the pink pigeon (Rs 1000 per year, which includes a trip to Île aux Aigrettes), or simply making a donation. The MWF does accept volunteers for stints of six months or more.
Since 1988 several international organisations have been working with the government to set up conservation areas in Mauritius. About 3.5% of the land area is now protected either as national parks, managed mainly for ecosystem preservation and recreation, or as nature reserves.
The largest park is Black River Gorges National Park, established in 1994 in the island's southwest. It covers 68 sq km and preserves a wide variety of environments, from pine forest to tropical scrub, and includes the country's largest area of native forest.
Two of the most important nature reserves are Île aux Aigrettes and Île Ronde (the latter is closed to the public), both of which are being restored to their natural state by replacing introduced plants and animals with native species.
In 1997 marine parks were proclaimed at Blue Bay, near Mahébourg on the southeast coast, and Balaclava (on the west coast), but the number of visitors to the areas makes it difficult to establish rigorous controls and there is a need to encourage local fishers to use less destructive techniques.
There is also the tiny national park of Bras d'Eau, close to Poste Lafayette on Mauritius' east coast.
Important National Parks & Reserves
|Park||Features||Activities||Best time to visit|
|Balaclava Marine Park||lagoon, coral reef, turtle breeding grounds||snorkelling, diving, glass-bottomed boat tours||all year|
|Black River Gorges National Park||forested mountains, Mauritian kestrels, echo parakeets, pink pigeons, black ebony trees||hiking, birdwatching||Sep–Jan for flowers|
|Blue Bay Marine Park||lagoon, corals, fish life||snorkelling, diving, glass-bottomed boat tours||all year|
|Île aux Aigrettes Nature Reserve||coral island, ebony forests, pink pigeons, olive white eyes, Aldabra giant tortoises, Telfairs skinks||ecotours, birdwatching||all year|
The natural environment of Mauritius has paid a heavy price for the country's rapid development, and the government seems keener than ever to encourage more tourists to plug the gap left by declining sugar and textile industries. The expansion of tourist facilities, however, is straining the island's infrastructure and causing environmental degradation and excessive demand on services such as electricity, water and transport.
One area of particular concern is construction along the coast – almost every beach has been developed, and most of the development is tourist related. Many Mauritians, however, are very keen to put environmental concerns first – a proposal for a hotel on Île des Deux Cocos in Blue Bay, for example, met with such fierce resistance that it was abandoned. Conservationists also fervently (and successfully) combated plans to construct a highway through the old forests in the southeast at Vallée de Ferney, which has now been turned into a conservation hub. Many grassroots organisations and NGOs are fighting against pillaging of the island’s natural resources for construction and hotel development, with the Mauritian Wildlife Foundation at the forefront of campaigns.
The government now requires an environmental-impact assessment for all new building projects, including coastal hotels, marinas and golf courses, and even for activities such as undersea walks. Planning regulations for hotel developments on both Mauritius and Rodrigues require that any developments are 81m from the high-tide mark at spring tide and 30m from wetlands on the main island. Since water shortages are a problem on Rodrigues, new hotels must also recycle their water.
To combat littering and other forms of environmental degradation, the government has established a special environmental police force charged with enforcing legislation and educating the local population. To report wrongdoers there is even a hotline (210 5151), though enforcement of environmental regulations remains a concern.
If anything the marine environment is suffering even more from over-exploitation than the land. The coast off Grand Baie is particularly affected by the number of divers and boats concentrated in a few specific locations. In addition silting and chemical pollution are resulting in extensive coral damage and falling fish populations. Unregulated dolphin watching off the west coast is also causing concern for its impact upon dolphin populations.