Göring, Hess, Speer and 21 other Nazi leaders were tried for crimes against peace and humanity by the Allies in Schwurgerichtssaal 600 (Court Room 600) of this still-working courthouse. Today the room forms part of an engaging exhibit detailing the background, progression and impact of the trials using film, photographs, audiotape and even the original defendants' dock. To get here, take the U1 towards Bärenschanze and get off at Sielstrasse.
The initial and most famous trial, held from 20 November 1945 until 1 October 1946, resulted in three acquittals, 12 sentences to death by hanging, three life sentences and four long prison sentences. Hermann Göring, the Reich’s field marshall, famously cheated the hangman by taking a cyanide capsule in his cell hours before his scheduled execution.
Although it's easy to assume that Nuremberg was chosen as a trial venue because of its sinister key role during the Nazi years, it was actually picked for practical reasons since the largely intact Palace of Justice was able to accommodate lawyers and staff from all four Allied nations.
Note that Court Room 600 is still used for trials and may be closed to visitors.