The door is open to all, to sick and healthy, not only to Catholics but also to pagans, Jews, heretics and vagabonds.
So go the words of a 13th-century poem describing the Camino. Eight hundred years later these words still ring true. The Camino de Santiago (Way of St James) originated as a medieval pilgrimage and, for more than 1000 years, people have taken up the Camino's age-old symbols – the scallop shell and staff – and set off on the adventure of a lifetime to the tomb of St James the Apostle, in Santiago de Compostela, in the Iberian Peninsula's far northwest.
Today the most popular of the several caminos (paths) to Santiago de Compostela is the Camino Francés, which spans 775km of Spain's north from Roncesvalles, on the border with France, to Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, and attracts walkers of all backgrounds and ages, from countries across the world. And no wonder: its list of assets (cultural, historical and natural) is impressive, as are its accolades. Not only is it the Council of Europe's first Cultural Itinerary and a Unesco World Heritage site but, for believers, it's a pilgrimage equal to visiting Jerusalem, and by finishing it you're guaranteed a healthy chunk of time off purgatory.
To feel, absorb, smell and taste northern Spain's diversity, for a great physical challenge, for a unique perspective on rural and urban communities, and to meet intriguing travel companions, this is an incomparable walk. 'The door is open to all' …so step on in.
In the 9th century a remarkable event occurred in the poor Iberian hinterlands: following a shining star, Pelayo, a religious hermit, unearthed the tomb of the apostle James the Greater (or, in Spanish, Santiago). The news was confirmed by the local bishop, the Asturian king and later the pope. Its impact is hard to truly imagine today, but it was instant and indelible: first a trickle, then a flood of Christian Europeans began to journey towards the setting sun in search of salvation.
Compostela became the most important destination for Christians after Rome and Jerusalem. Its popularity increased with an 11th-century papal decree granting it Holy Year status: pilgrims could receive a plenary indulgence – a full remission of your lifetime's sins – during a Holy Year. These occur when Santiago's feast day (25 July) falls on a Sunday: the next one is in 2021.
The 11th and 12th centuries marked the heyday of the pilgrimage. The Reformation was devastating for Catholic pilgrimages, and by the 19th century, the Camino had nearly died out. In its startling late 20th-century reanimation, which continues today, it's most popular as a personal and spiritual journey of discovery, rather than one necessarily motivated by religion.
Although in Spain there are many caminos (paths) to Santiago, by far the most popular is, and was, the Camino Francés, which originates in France, crosses the Pyrenees at Roncesvalles and then heads west for 775km across the regions of Navarra, La Rioja, Castilla y León and Galicia. Waymarked with cheerful yellow arrows and scallop shells, the 'trail' is a mishmash of rural lanes, paved secondary roads and footpaths all strung together. Starting at Roncesvalles, the Camino takes roughly two weeks to cycle or five weeks to walk.
But this is by no means the only route, and the summer crowds along the Camino Francés have prompted some to look at alternative routes: in 2005, nearly 85% of walkers took the Camino Francés; by 2016 this had fallen to 63% and four alternative routes were added to the Camino de Santiago's Unesco World Heritage listing in 2015. Increasingly popular routes include the following:
Camino de la Costa/Camino del Norte From Irún along the coasts of the Basque Country, Cantabria and Asturias, then across Galicia to Santiago.
Camino Vasco-Riojano An alternative start to the Camino Francés, beginning in Irún.
Camino Primitivo Links the Camino del Norte (from Oviedo) with Melide along the main Camino Francés.
Camino Lebaniego From either Santander or San Vicente Barquera to the important Monasterio de Santo Toribio de Liébana in Cantabria; not actually a Camino de Santiago but part of the Unesco listing nonetheless.
Camino Portugués North to Santiago through Portugal.
Vía de la Plata From Andalucía north through Extremadura, Castilla y León and on to Galicia.
A very popular alternative is to walk only the last 100km from Sarria in Galicia. This is the minimum distance allowed in order to earn a Compostella certificate of completion given out by the Catedral de Santiago de Compostela.
Another possibility is to continue on beyond Santiago to the dramatic 'Lands End' outpost of Fisterra (Finisterre), an extra 88km, or Muxia (a further 30km still), which is considered sacred by pilgrims as it was here that the Virgin appeared (in a stone boat) before Santiago.
For more information about the Credencial (like a passport for the Camino, in which pilgrims accumulate stamps at various points along the route) and the Compostella certificate, visit the website of the cathedral's Centro Internacional de Acogida al Peregrino.
If you're in Santiago, the Museo das Peregrinacións e de Santiago, almost alongside the cathedral, provides fascinating insights into the phenomenon of Santiago (man and city) down the centuries.
There are a number of excellent Camino websites:
Camino de Santiago (http://santiago-compostela.net) Extensive info on Camino routes as well as maps.
Mundicamino (www.mundicamino.com) Excellent, thorough descriptions and maps.
Camino de Santiago (www.caminodesantiago.me) Contains a huge selection of news groups, where you can get all of your questions answered.
When to Walk
People walk and cycle the Camino year-round. In May and June the wildflowers are glorious and the endless fields of cereals turn from green to toasty gold, making the landscapes a huge draw. July and August bring crowds of summer holidaymakers and scorching heat, especially through Castilla y León. September is less crowded and the weather is generally pleasant. From November to May there are fewer people on the road as the season can bring snow, rain and bitter winds. Santiago's feast day, 25 July, is a popular time to converge on the city.
Feature: Pilgrim Hostels
There are over 300 refugios (simple hostels) along the Camino Francés, and numerous refugios on the other caminos. These are owned by parishes, 'friends of the Camino' associations, private individuals, town halls and regional governments. While in the early days these places were run on donations and provided little more than hot water and a bed, today's pilgrims are charged €5 to €10 and expect showers, kitchens and washing machines. Some things haven't changed though – the refugios still operate on a first-come, first-served basis and are intended for those doing the Camino solely under their own steam.