Kāifēng is ringed by a relatively intact, much-restored Qing dynasty wall, which you can climb up at various points. Today’s bastion was built on the foundations of the Song dynasty Inner Wall (内城; Nèichéng). Encased with grey bricks, rear sections of the ramparts have been recently buttressed unattractively with concrete. Rising up outside was the mighty, now buried Outer Wall (外城; Wàichéng), a colossal construction containing 18 gates, which looped south of Pó Pagoda.