This was the largest synagogue in Europe when it was completed in 1675, and it's still in use today. The interior features massive pillars and some two dozen brass candelabra. The large library belonging to the Ets Haim seminary is one of the oldest and most important Jewish book collections in Europe. Outside (near the entrance) take the stairs underground to the treasure chambers to see 16th-century manuscripts and gold-threaded tapestries.

Admission tickets also provide entry to the Joods Historisch Museum.

The synagogue's architect, Elias Bouman, was inspired by the Temple of Solomon but the building's classical lines are typical of the Dutch capital. It was restored after WWII.