This wide-ranging museum (inside the New Arsenal) exhibits art and artefacts from Lithuanian life from Neolithic times to the present day. Early history is revealed in 2nd millennium BC arrowheads and 7th-century grave hauls (signage isn't always good), while the lives of well-to-do Lithuanians of recent centuries are unveiled with velvet-lined sleds and elaborately painted furniture. The highlight is the colourful folk traditions room, replete with floral-decorated furnishings, linens and carved wooden crosses.
The museum builds on the collections compiled by the Museum of Antiquities since 1855 and also features collections devoted to numismatics (including some of the very first Lithuanian coins) and burial traditions.
A statue of Mindaugas, Lithuania's sole king, has stood guard over the entrance since 2003.