The Museo Civico houses a modest collection of archaeological finds from Modica and Cava d'Ispica, dating back to the neolithic period. The most prized of these is the L'Eracle di Modica (Heracles of Modica), a small, Hellenistic-era bronze depicting the Greek demigod wearing the skin of the lion he famously strangled. The museum also houses a collection of 20th-century paintings and sketches once owned by Nobel Prize–winning poet Salvatore Quasimodo, born in Modica in 1901.

Among these are works by Attilio Rossi and Domenico Cantatore.