Also called the Hill of the Muses, Filopappou Hill – along with the Hills of the Pnyx and Nymphs – was, according to Plutarch, where Theseus and the Amazons did battle. Inhabited from prehistoric times to the post-Byzantine era, today the pine-clad slopes are a relaxing place for a stroll. They offer excellent views of Attica and the Saronic Gulf, well-signed ruins and some of the very best vantage points for photographing the Acropolis.
The hill, to the southwest of the Acropolis, is identifiable by the Monument of Filopappos crowning its summit; it was built between AD 114 and 116 in honour of Julius Antiochus Filopappos, a prominent Roman consul and administrator. The paved path to the top starts near the periptero (kiosk) on Dionysiou Areopagitou. After 250m, it passes the excellent Church of Agios Dimitrios Loumbardiaris, which contains fine frescoes, and continues past Socrates' prison, the Shrine of the Muses and on up to the top.
In the 4th and 5th centuries BC, defensive fortifications – such as the Themistoclean wall and the Diateichisma – extended over the hill. You see their extensive remains today.