Almost in the centre of the Ichon-Qala, the large and atmospheric Juma Mosque is interesting for the 218 wooden columns supporting its roof – a concept thought to be derived from ancient Arabian mosques. Six or seven of the columns date from the original 10th-century mosque (see if you can spot them), though the present building dates from the 18th century.

From inside, you can climb 82 dark and narrow steps up to the pigeon-poop-splattered gallery of the 47m Juma Minaret, for fine views over the city. The minaret is apparently starting to lean and so access may be restricted in the future.