Ollantaytambo ruins

Getty Images/Moment Open

Ollantaytambo Ruins


Both fortress and temple, these spectacular Inca ruins rise above Ollantaytambo, making a splendid half-day trip. (Admission is via the boleto turístico tourist card, valid for 10 days and for 16 other sites across the region.) The huge, steep terraces that guard Ollantaytambo’s spectacular Inca ruins mark one of the few places where the Spanish conquistadors lost a major battle.

The rebellious Manco Inca had retreated to this fortress after his defeat at Sacsaywamán. In 1536 Hernando Pizarro, Francisco’s younger half-brother, led a force of 70 cavalrymen to Ollantaytambo, supported by large numbers of indigenous and Spanish foot soldiers, in an attempt to capture Manco Inca.

The conquistadors, showered with arrows, spears and boulders from atop the steep terracing, were unable to climb to the fortress. In a brilliant move, Manco Inca flooded the plain below the fortress through previously prepared channels. With the Spaniards’ horses bogged down in the water, Pizarro ordered a hasty retreat, chased down by thousands of Manco Inca’s victorious soldiers.

Yet the Inca victory would be short lived. Spanish forces soon returned with a quadrupled cavalry force and Manco fled to his jungle stronghold in Vilcabamba.

Though Ollantaytambo was a highly effective fortress, it also served as a temple. A finely worked ceremonial center is at the top of the terracing. Some extremely well-built walls were under construction at the time of the conquest and have never been completed. The stone was quarried from the mountainside 6km away, high above the opposite bank of the Río Urubamba. Transporting the huge stone blocks to the site was a stupendous feat. The Incas’ crafty technique to move massive blocks across the river meant carting the blocks to the riverside then diverting the entire river channel around them.

Lonely Planet's must-see attractions

Nearby Ollantaytambo attractions

2. Pinkulluna

0.24 MILES

It's a very steep climb up the hillside, but views are magnificent. You will see the Ollantaytambo ruins from the best vantage point, and it's nice to…

3. Inca Quarry

2.03 MILES

The 6km hike to the Inca quarry on the opposite side of the river from the main ruins is a good walk from Ollantaytambo. The trail starts from the Inca…

4. Moray

6.87 MILES

With concentric terraces carved into a huge earthen bowl, the deep amphitheater-like terracing of Moray, reached via Maras village, is a fascinating…

5. Salineras de Maras

8.18 MILES

Salineras is among the most spectacular sights in the whole Cuzco area, with thousands of salt pans that have been used for salt extraction since Inca…

6. Q'ente

12.2 MILES

Translating to the Hummingbird, this little-visited site sits just along the Inca Trail. (If you start from Km 88, turn west after crossing the river to…

7. Runkurakay

15.86 MILES

Beyond Paq’amayo on the Inca Trail, at an altitude of about 3600m, the trail crosses the river over a small footbridge and climbs toward Runkurakay; at…

8. Sayaqmarka

17.03 MILES

The Inca Trail descends to the ruin of Sayaqmarka, a tightly constructed complex perched on a small mountain spur, which offers incredible views.