Designed by and named for the architect responsible for much of Brasília, this striking museum features an iconic eye-shaped tower painted with whimsical dancing figures in shadowy black. Rotating exhibits highlight Brazilian and international artists of the 20th and 21st centuries. Permanent exhibitions include a photographic time capsule of the museum's construction (housed in the tower) and an excellent presentation on Niemeyer himself, the highlight of the space.
There's a nice shop for those into Niemeyer's signature style. Bus 505 from Passeio Público stops right at the museum.