On November 29, 1864, Colorado Volunteer soldiers attacked an encampment of Cheyenne and Arapaho along Sand Creek. Led by Chief Black Kettle, the Native Americans had been assured that moving to this site would ensure their safety. According to eye witnesses, 163 people were killed, including 110 women and children. This site was dedicated in 2002.
The Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes hold an annual Spiritual Healing Run at the Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site.