Australia's Mawson Station was established in February 1954. Named for Douglas Mawson, an Australian Antarctic explorer, it is the oldest continuously occupied station south of the Antarctic Circle. Mawson is approached through Iceberg Alley, a channel lined with huge tabular bergs that have run aground on underwater banks.
Horseshoe Harbour, protected by two projecting arms of land, is the best natural harbor for thousands of kilometers. Mawson's high-altitude location makes it a good place for studying cosmic rays. This research is done in an underground vault in solid rock, 20m below the surface. Also notable are the three 34m-tall wind turbines that supply up to 80% of the station's power needs.