Mongolia is certainly not somewhere you can just turn up and expect to get paid employment – the demand is not high even for teaching English. Also, if you do get work the pay will be poor (possibly the same as the locals), unless you can score a job with a development agency, but these agencies usually recruit their non-Mongolian staff in their home country, not from within Mongolia.
Permission to work is fairly easy to obtain if you have been hired locally. In most cases, your employer will take care of this for you.
For any project you get involved with, ask the organisation to put you in touch with former volunteers or workers to get a better idea of what you may be in for.
Government offices are usually open from 9am to 5pm Monday to Friday. Many banks stay open until 7pm and in Ulaanbaatar there are several offering 24-hour banking. Most private and state-run businesses open at about 10am and close sometime between 5pm and 8pm. Many open on Sundays.
In the countryside, banks, museums and other facilities may close for an hour at lunch, sometime between noon and 2pm.
Outdoor markets are usually open from 9am to 7pm daily (or sunset in winter), while indoor markets open from 10am to 8pm.
Museums have reduced hours in winter and are normally closed an extra couple of days a week.
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