If you’ve ever wondered what a Catholic version of Las Vegas might look like, chances are it’d turn out pretty close to Lourdes. This sprawling town, 43km southeast of Pau, has been one of the world’s most important pilgrimage sites since 1858, when 14-year-old Bernadette Soubirous (1844–79) was visited 18 times in a rocky grotto by the Virgin Mary. The visions were subsequently confirmed by the Vatican, and Bernadette was beatified in 1933.
Now known as the Sanctuaires Notre Dame de Lourdes, the grotto is considered one of the holiest sites in Christendom. Over six million people arrive in Lourdes every year, hoping to be doused in the supposedly miraculous waters, but the modern town of Lourdes itself is a pretty dispiriting experience, with a tatty tangle of neon-signed hotels and souvenir shops selling everything from plastic crucifixes to Madonna-shaped bottles (just add holy water at the shrine).