Bànpō is the earliest example of the Neolithic Yangshao culture, which is believed to have been matriarchal. It appears to have been occupied from 4500 BC until around 3750 BC. The excavated area is divided into three parts: a pottery manufacturing area, a residential area complete with moat, and a cemetery.
This village is of enormous importance for Chinese archaeological studies, but unless you’re desperately interested in the subject it can be an underwhelming visitor experience.
There are two exhibition halls that feature some of the pottery, including strangely shaped amphorae, discovered at the site.
The village is in the eastern suburbs of Xī’ān. Bus 105 (¥1) from the train station runs past (ask where to get off); it’s also often included on tours.