A fishing encampment as early as 6000 years ago, Managua has been an important trading center and regional capital for at least two millennia. When Spanish chronicler Fernandez de Oviedo arrived in 1528, he estimated Managua's population at around 40, 000; most of these original inhabitants fled to the Sierritas, the small mountains just south, shortly after the Spanish arrived. The small town, without even a hospital or school until the 1750s, didn't really achieve any prominence until 1852, when the seemingly endless civil war between Granada and León was resolved by placing the capital here.
The clever compromise might have worked out better had a geologist been on hand: Managua sits atop a network of fault lines that have shaped its history ever since. The late 1800s were rocked by quakes that destroyed the new capital's infrastructure, with churches and banks crumbling as the ground flowed beneath their feet. In 1931 the epicenter was the stadium, which killed dozens during the big game; in 1968 a single powerful jolt right beneath what's now Metrocentro Mall destroyed an entire neighborhood.
And on the evening of December 23, 1972, a series of powerful tremors rocked the city, culminating in a 6.2 quake that killed 11, 000 people and destroyed 53, 000 homes. The blatant siphoning of international relief funds by President Somoza touched off the Sandinista-led revolution, which was followed by the Contra War, and the city center, including the beautiful old cathedral, was never rebuilt.