Uganda is well linked to its East African neighbours with daily flights to Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, DRC and Sudan, even if it doesn't currently have a national airline.
Airports & Airlines
The departure tax is included in the cost of airline tickets.
Uganda shares land border crossings with Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, South Sudan and the DRC. Direct bus services connect the major cities in each country (with the exception of DRC), and local transport from towns nearer the border is available for those wanting to break their journey along the way.
The busiest border crossing is at Busia on the direct route to Nairobi through Kisumu. Frequent minibuses link Jinja to Busia (USh10,000, two hours), and then again between Busia and Kisumu or Nairobi. The border crossing is straightforward, though there are a number of shady moneychangers – check everything twice.
The other busy border crossing to Kenya is through Malaba, a bit north of Busia and just east of Tororo. Finding onward transport from here to Nairobi is less frequent than at Busia.
To visit Mt Elgon National Park or Sipi Falls, the Suam border crossing, beyond which lies the Kenyan city of Kitale, may be convenient, but this is a pretty rough route. Trekkers in either the Ugandan or Kenyan national parks on Mt Elgon also have the option of walking over the border.
Most travellers avoid local transport altogether and opt for the direct buses running between Kampala and Nairobi, which range from luxurious to basic. You can also pick up these buses (or get dropped off on your way into Uganda) in Jinja. The journey takes about 12 to 13 hours.
Easy Coach Reputable company with modern buses. Daily departures to Nairobi (USh80,000) at 6.30am, 2pm and 7pm.
Queens Coach Comfortable bus servicing Nairobi (USh75,000), departing 8pm.
Mash Twice-daily departures to Nairobi (USh70,000) at 5pm and 10pm.
There are two main border crossing points between Uganda and Rwanda: between Kabale and Kigali via Katuna (Gatuna on the Rwandan side), and between Kisoro and Musanze (Ruhengeri) via Cyanika. The Kagitumba border isn't very practical for most people, but there is public transport on both sides.
The busier crossing by far is at Katuna/Gatuna, and it can take over an hour to get through immigration stations on both sides. From Kabale there are lots of shared-car taxis to the border, and a few minibuses each morning (except Sunday) direct to Kigali. You can also wait at the main junction in the morning for the Kigali-bound buses from Kampala to pass through and hope they have free seats. On the Rwandan side there are minibuses travelling to Kigali (two hours) throughout the day. The border is open 24 hours.
From Kisoro to Cyanika there's no public transport, so you'll need to get a special-hire (USh35,000) or a boda-boda (motorcycle taxi; USh8000). Transport on the Rwandan side to Musanze (Ruhengeri) is frequent and the road in good condition; altogether it only takes about 1½ hours to travel between Kisoro and Musanze (Ruhengeri). The border is open 24 hours.
There's also the option of taking a direct bus between Kampala and Kigali (USh40,000), a seven- to nine-hour journey including a slow border crossing.
Jaguar Executive Coaches Reliable company with daily services to Kigali at 7am, 9am, 8pm and 9pm. Also has a 'VIP' option with more comfortable seats.
Simba (Namayiba Terminal) Daily buses to Kigali (USh40,000, 11 hours) at 2am.
Although the border to South Sudan is open, travel to South Sudan is at present nearly impossible due to civil war and famine.
The most commonly used direct route between Uganda and Tanzania is on the west side of Lake Victoria between Bukoba and Kampala, via Masaka; the border crossing is at Mutukula. Road conditions are good and the journey takes about six hours by bus from Kampala (you can also catch these buses in Masaka).
There's another border crossing located at Nkurungu, west of Mutukula, but the road is bad and little transport passes this way.
The journey to Dar es Salaam takes a day and a half via Nairobi.
Friends Safari Recommended bus departs at 2pm for Bukoba (USh35,000, seven hours) and Mwanza (USh65,000, 12 hours) at 5am.
Falcon Departs for Dar es Salaam (USh140,000, 28 hours) on Wednesday, Friday and Sunday at 5.30am.
Do check the current security situation before heading across the border here – it's inadvisable due to current instability. The main border crossings into the DRC are at Bunagana (8km from Kisoro) and Arua. There are no direct buses; you'll need to get to Kisoro and continue by special-hire taxi to the border. There's a third, little-used border crossing near Bwera, just to the north of Lake Edward.
The ferry service on Lake Victoria between Fort Bell and Mwanza (Tanzania) has been suspended.
Being landlocked, Uganda has no direct sea access.