Records show that Saltuk Turks built a fortress on this hill above a bend in the Kars River in 1153. It was demolished by the Central Asian conqueror Tamerlane (Timur) in 1386 and rebuilt several times over the foll…
Below Kars Castle, the imposing, basalt Kümbet Camii was built as a church between 932 and 937 when Kars was (briefly) capital of the Bagratuni kingdom of Armenia. Reliefs of the 12 apostles adorn the drum beneath t…
The ruins of the Beylerbeyi Sarayı nestle beneath Kars Castle.
Northeast of the centre, just off the road to Ani, the city museum has archaeological exhibits from the early Bronze Age (including some from the Ani area, showing how far back settlement there stretched), the Urart…
The attractive 16th-century basalt bridge Taş Köprü, spanning the Kars River below the castle, was destroyed by a flood and rebuilt by the Ottomans in 1719.
Below Kars Castle, the 17th-century Ulu Camii is Kars' largest Ottoman mosque.
This 19th-century Russian church, converted to a mosque, stands picturesquely south of the centre, now with twin minarets instead of its original onion domes.
This 1907 building, with columns and floral motifs, is an example of Kars' Baltic (ie northern Russian) architecture.
The Treaty of Kars was signed in 1921 in this yellow-and-white building dating from 1883, one of the finest examples of Kars' Baltic architecture.
The school occupies a late 19th-century winter mansion, part of Kars' Baltic architecture heritage.