Climate

The Aegean and Mediterranean coasts have moderate winter temperatures and hot, humid summers, while the Anatolian hinterland has extremely cold winters and excessively hot summers. The further east you travel, the more pronounced these climatic extremes become, so that much of eastern Turkey is unpassable with snow from December to April, with temperatures sometimes falling to around -12°C. In July and August temperatures rise rapidly and can exceed 45°C, making travel in the east very uncomfortable.

The Black Sea coast gets two to three times the national average rainfall, along with more moderate temperatures, making it rather like Central Europe but pleasantly warmer. Most rain falls here between September and March. İstanbul's climate is also more European, characterised by cold and wet winters and sweltering summers, making spring (April to May) and autumn (September to October) the mildest seasons – as on the Aegean and Mediterranean.