Archaeological finds on the island indicate that St Lucia was settled by Arawaks between 1000 BC and 500 BC. Around AD 800 migrating Caribs conquered the Arawaks and established permanent settlements.
St Lucia was outside the routes taken by Columbus during his four visits to the New World and was probably first sighted by Spanish explorers during the early 1500s. Caribs successfully fended off two British attempts at colonization in the 1600s, only to be faced with French claims to the island a century down the road, when they established the island’s first lasting European settlement, Soufrière, in 1746 and went about developing plantations. St Lucia’s colonial history was marred by warfare, however, as the British still maintained their claim to the island.
In 1778 the British successfully invaded St Lucia and established naval bases at Gros Islet and Pigeon Island, which they used as staging grounds for attacks on the French islands to the north. For the next few decades possession of St Lucia seesawed between the British and the French. In 1814 the Treaty of Paris finally ceded the island to the British, ending 150 years of conflict during which St Lucia changed flags 14 times.
Culturally the British were slow in replacing French customs, and it wasn’t until 1842 that English nudged out French as St Lucia’s official language. Other customs linger, and to this day many speak a French-based patois among themselves, attend Catholic services and live in villages with French names.
St Lucia gained internal autonomy in 1967 and then achieved full independence, as a member of the Commonwealth, on February 22, 1979. Politics has stabilized in recent times, with election results usually coming in the form of landslide victories for the opposing party. The downturn in the banana industry has meant that a diversification of industry is vital for economic prosperity. Tourism is now the main source of revenue.
In late 2010 the island was severely hit by a hurricane, which caused much damage in the Soufrière area.