Adrenaline junkies can get their fix negotiating snow-capped peaks, rushing rivers and pounding surf. Rafting, rock climbing, mountain biking, hang-gliding, sandboarding and zip-lining: there are hundreds of ways to get your heart racing.
White-water rafting Heart-thumping rivers – from turquoise to crystalline – draw rafters and kayakers to the Chilean south. Tena in Ecuador is another major rafting spot.
Mountain biking The World's Most Dangerous Road: the name says it all. This 64km mountain-bike trip outside La Paz takes in perilous descents. Make sure your brakes (and travel insurance!) are top notch.
Hang-gliding Sail high above the forest-covered hills of Rio to a beachside landing on a fantastic tandem flight.
Sandboarding Take a wild ride down 150m-high sand dunes just outside a desert oasis town in northern Chile.
Mountain climbing Strap on your crampons and make your way up 5897m Volcán Cotopaxi, one of Ecuador's most popular climbs.
Paragliding Get airborne in Bucaramanga and Colombia's adventure capital of San Gil.