The airport is 8km south of the centre. Several airlines, including Aeroflot, Aurora and S7, fly regularly to Khabarovsk, Vladivostok, Novosibirsk, Moscow, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and Blagoveshchensk.
Boats also run to the Kuril Islands and from the southern Sakhalin port of Kholmsk to Vanino on the mainland.
From the main bus stop outside the train station you can catch bus 56 for Kholmsk (R300, about 45 minutes) hourly from 8.45am to 9pm, bus 115 to Korsakov (R140, one hour) half-hourly or bus 111 to Aniva (about one hour).
From the train station, facing pl Lenina, the fastest train is the 1, which heads north at 10.42pm daily, stopping at Tiemovsk (kupe R3700, 9½ hours) and the end of the line, Nogliki (kupe R4400, 12 hours). The 2 train runs daily in the opposite direction. Elektrichki go to Bykov (daily, 1¾ hours) and Novoderevenskya (two daily, 30 minutes).