Nizhny Novgorod International Airport is 15km southwest of the city centre. The airport has several flights daily to Moscow and a handful of flights to other large cities around Russia, including to Kazan. To get to the airport, take the metro to the southern terminus at Park Kultury (Парк культу́ры) and then bus 11 or 20.
The river station is below the kremlin. All services on the Volga are cruise, day-excursion or tourist boats. Unfortunately, there are no short-hop ferries between major towns. Hydrofoils to Gorodets leave from their own pier at the river station.
Buses to Vladimir (R600, four hours, eight daily), Kostroma (R1000, nine hours, daily) and Gorodets (R200, two hours, about every half-hour) depart from the small Kanavinskaya bus station. Private operators run minibuses to Moscow (R800, six hours, at least six daily), which depart across the road from the train station; others leave from the bus station.
Nizhny Novgorod train station is still sometimes known as Gorky-Moskovsky vokzal, so ‘Gorky’ appears on some timetables. It's on the western bank of the Oka River, at pl Revolyutsii 2a. The service centre at the train station is helpful for buying rail tickets.
The train station is conveniently located above metro station Moskovskaya (Московская). From the station, take the metro one stop to Gorkovskaya (Горьковская), the main square on the eastern bank of the Oka River that's close to major sights.
The high-speed Sapsan/Lastochka runs to Moscow’s Kursky vokzal (seat R2400, four to five hours, two daily). More than a dozen other trains also serve Moscow (R1300, seven hours) via Vladimir (R800, three hours). The Volga (059) runs to/from St Petersburg (R2800, 14½ hours, daily).
Trans-Siberian flagships run to Perm (R3600, 14½ hours, daily) and beyond, but lesser trains do the trip for R2450 – for Kazan (R2600, nine hours, daily) the 41 is a top-flight (and only) choice. Other trains go to Yekaterinburg (R4300, 20 hours, several daily) and beyond.