During WWII, northern Transylvania fell under pro-Nazi Hungarian rule. Under the Diktat of Vienna of 30 August 1940 the Axis powers, Germany and Italy, forced Romania to cede 43,493 sq km and a population of 2.6 million to Hungary. During the four years of occupation, numerous Romanians were imprisoned and tortured, and villagers were massacred in hundreds. Northern Transylvania was not recovered until 25 October 1944 when, following the liberation of Satu Mare, the territory fell back into Romanian hands.