The minor Aeropuerto Guaraní is 30km west of town on Ruta 2. Flights pass through here en route between Asunción and Brazil whenever there is enough demand.
The bus terminal is about 2km south of the center. City buses (3500G) shuttle frequently between terminal and center, continuing on to the border. There are frequent buses to Asunción (60,000-90,000G, 4½ to six hours) and Encarnación (60,000-90,000G, six hours). Daily buses with Pluma and Sol del Paraguay run to São Paulo (Brazil, 250,000G, 17 hours).
Any bus marked 'Hernandarias' (3500G, every 15 minutes) passes in front of the dam and Flora and Fauna Itaipú Binacional.
Taxis are fairly expensive, costing around 40,000 to 50,000G to downtown.
Getting to Argentina
A direct car-ferry service (10,000G, hourly 8:30am to 5pm Monday to Saturday) runs from Puerto Presidente Franco to Puerto Iguazú (Argentina). It's a short uphill walk to the town from here. Alternatively, cross to Brazil first and take the land border there – which means two sets of customs. No visa is necessary unless you are staying in Brazil.
Getting to Brazil
The border with Brazil (Foz do Iguaçu) is at the Puente de la Amistad (Friendship Bridge). Immigration (free, 24 hour) is at both ends of the bridge. Buses between Ciudad del Este and the local terminal in Foz do Iguaçu (R$3, every 10 minutes) run from 6am to 7:30pm. Locals don't need to stop at immigration, but travelers do, so make sure you tell the driver you want to get off; your ticket is still valid for the next bus if necessary.
A smaller border crossing well to the north of here, between Pedro Juan Caballero and Ponta Pora (Brazil) has no formal customs control. The border runs down the middle of the main street and you'll need to get your stamps from the local police on either side or at Ponta Pora airport. Though this may seem like a handy crossing if you are going to Bonito or the Pantanal Paraguayo, bus times and irregular hours held by the immigration offices mean it is usually easier to cross to Foz do Iguaçu instead.