In 1881 Sultan Moulay Al Hassan (1873–94) founded Tiznit as a base from which to assert his authority over the rebellious Berber tribes of the south. To do this, he built the town’s perimeter walls. Jewish silversmiths were moved into the town and gave it a reputation for silver workmanship.
However, Tiznit remained embroiled in local sedition, and was a centre of dissent against the 1912 treaty that turned Morocco into a French and Spanish protectorate. This resistance movement was led by El Hiba, the so-called ‘Blue Sultan’ from the Western Sahara, who earned his nickname for always wearing his Saharawi veil.
Following Sultan Moulay Hafid’s capitulation to the French at the Treaty of Fès, El-Hiba proclaimed himself sultan here in 1912. The southern tribes rose to support him and El Hiba marched north at the head of an army of men from the Tuareg and Anti Atlas tribes. They were welcomed as liberators in Marrakesh, but much of the army was slaughtered by the French as it moved towards Fez. El-Hiba retreated to Taroudant, then Tiznit, then up into the Anti Atlas, where he pursued a campaign of resistance against the French until his death in 1919.