Pit toilets In most hotels in Ulaanbaatar and aimag capitals and most ger camps, toilets are the sit-down European variety. In other hotels and some more remote ger camps, you will have to use pit toilets and hold your breath.

Outdoors In the countryside, where there may not be a bush or tree for hundreds of kilometres, modesty is not something to worry about – just do it where you want to, but away from gers. Also, try to avoid such places as ovoos (sacred cairns of stones), rivers and lakes (water sources for nomads) and marmot holes.

Toilet paper The plumbing is decrepit in many of the older hotels, and toilet paper can easily jam up the works. If there is a rubbish basket next to the toilet, this is where the waste paper should go. Toilet paper in the basic hotels resembles industrial-strength cardboard, or may be scraps of newspaper or old books. To avoid paper cuts, stock up on softer brand toilet paper, available in the larger cities.