Vilnius and Kaunas both have good air connections within Europe. From the US and beyond, you're likely to change planes in a hub airport such as Amsterdam, Warsaw or Frankfurt.
AirBaltic (www.airbaltic.com) flies to Vilnius from Rīga several times daily and from Tallinn on most days, and also offers scheduled if sporadic service from Rīga to Palanga. These flights are more frequent in summer (May to September). Many travellers arrive via low-cost carrier Ryanair (www.ryanair.com), which operates routes to Vilnius and Kaunas from several European cities.
Lithuania has road and rail links to neighbouring countries; there are better routes via the former than the latter. Lithuania is a member of the EU’s Schengen common border zone and there are no passport or border formalities if entering from Poland or Latvia. You’ll encounter the old-school ‘papers please’ approach if entering from Russia or Belarus.
Long-distance bus routes link Vilnius to neighbouring countries Poland, Belarus and the Baltics. Browse routes on Eurolines (www.eurolines.lt) and Lux Express (https://luxexpress.eu), whose coaches link Vilnius with Rīga, Tallinn, St Petersburg, Warsaw and Helsinki.
Car & Motorcycle
Lithuania shares its border with four countries. Two of them – Poland and Latvia – are part of the EU’s common-border Schengen Agreement, so there are no border checks when driving between them and Lithuania. But inform your car-rental company ahead of time if you are planning to drive across borders.
It's a different story for neighbouring Belarus and Russian region Kaliningrad (where most visitors require a visa to enter). Checks are stricter and cross-border car rental is unlikely to be possible. Driving your own vehicle from Lithuania into Belarus, you're likely to be stopped and asked to show insurance documents.
The ease of travelling to Vilnius by train depends very much on the departure point. Direct trains link Warsaw to Kaunas and Vilnius; browse schedules on www.intercity.pl. There are also regular services linking Minsk and Vilnius (see www.rw.by).
However, travelling by train to/from the Baltic states isn't as smooth a ride as it should be. At the time of writing, train travel between Vilnius and Rīga required a few hours' stop in Daugavpils. Worse, train service from Vilnius to Tallinn involves a circuitous route. In both cases, buses are quicker and more direct.