Buses depart from the bus terminal outside the train station's Zenkō-ji exit.
Local destinations include Togakushi (one way/return from ¥1250/2250, one hour) and Hakuba (¥1800, approximately 70 minutes). Highway buses link Nagano with Shinjuku (Tokyo), Nagoya, Kyoto and Osaka. Check https://highway-buses.jp for up-to-date details.
Frequent shinkansen depart Tokyo Station for Nagano (¥8200, 1½ hours) and continue to Kanazawa (¥8960, 70 minutes).
The JR Shinonoi line connects Nagano with Matsumoto (Shinano tokkyū ¥2840, 50 minutes; Chūō futsū ¥1140, 1¼ hours) and Nagoya (Shinano tokkyū ¥7300, three hours).