The largely agricultural Jezreel Valley (Plain of Esdraelon) is home to a number of veteran kibbutzim and a spectacular Byzantine-era synagogue mosaic. Stretching for about 45km, from a bit west of Nazareth southeast to the Jordan River, it is bounded on the south by the partly forested slopes of Mt Gilboa.

At its eastern end, the Jezreel Valley merges into the Beit She'an Valley, site of Israel's most impressive Roman ruins. This area forms part of both the Jordan Valley and the Great Rift Valley.