Fortified, wrecked and refortified by Muslims, Crusaders and Mamluks, old Akko is encircled by a sea wall to the west, south and southeast, and by ramparts (that you can walk on). A dry moat was dug to the north and northeast, mainly between 1750 and 1840.
In the old city's northeastern corner stands Burj Al Kommander, a bastion that affords great views over the skyline of Akko. From there, the Land Wall Promenade – accessible by stairways from the interior of the old city – heads south for 200m to the 12th-century Land Gate, once the city’s only terrestrial entrance. Until 1910, the only other way in or out was via the Sea Gate, which these days faces the marina and its colourful fishing boats.
The old city's northwestern corner is anchored by Burj Al Karim, also known as the English Fort. From here, the 12th-century sea wall (refaced in the 18th century by Al Jazzar with stones scavenged from the Crusader castle at Atlit) runs due south (paralleled by HaHagana St) to the black-and-white-striped lighthouse, and then east – with the strollable Sea Wall Promenade on top – to the marina.