The only required vaccination for entering Honduras is that for Yellow Fever, and only if you are arriving from a region with Yellow Fever in either South America or Africa.
As with anywhere in Central America, it's essential to have comprehensive health insurance to cover any costs you may incur if you're in an accident or suffer a serious illness. Check specifically that your insurance covers you for Honduras, including for medical evacuation should the need occur.
Be aware also that your coverage may exclude some activities such as diving, climbing or white-water rafting. Be sure to know exactly what is covered and what isn't with your policy, then buy additional insurance as you need it once in Honduras.
Antimalarial medication should be seriously considered if traveling on the north coast or Bay Islands. Chloroquine – sold as ‘Aralen’ in most pharmacies – is the drug of choice. Mosquito-borne Chikungunya, Zika and dengue fever are also present, so bring plenty of repellent.
Sand flies can also carry blood parasites, the most prevalent being Leishmaniasis. The most risk is in the Moskitia region. Closed footwear and insect repellent are the best deterrents.
It's not advisable to drink tap water in Honduras. Many hotels and hostels offer filtered water to fill your own bottle, or bottled water is sold everywhere.
There are a number of first-rate hospitals in Tegucigalpa and San Pedro Sula. In general, private facilities offer better care than public hospitals, though at greater cost. Adequate medical care is available in other major cities and towns, but facilities in rural areas maybe limited.
Many doctors and hospitals expect payment in cash, regardless of whether you have travel health insurance.
If you develop a life-threatening medical problem, you’ll probably want to be evacuated to a country with state-of-the-art medical care.
Pharmacies are ubiquitous and generally well stocked.