Surrounded by fertile land and lying at the crossroads of three major caravan routes, it’s easy to understand why Emperor Fasiladas (r 1632–67) made Gonder his capital in 1636. To the southwest lay rich sources of gold, civet, ivory and slaves, to the northeast lay Massawa and access to the Red Sea, and to the northwest lay Sudan and Egypt.
At the time of Fasiladas’ death, Gonder’s population already exceeded 65,000 and its wealth and splendour had become legendary. Drifting through the old palaces, banqueting halls and former gardens, it’s not difficult to imagine the courtly pageantry, ceremony and intrigue that went on here.
The city flourished as a capital for well over a century before infighting severely weakened the kingdom. In the 1880s what remained of Gonder was extensively looted by the Sudanese Dervishes. Despite this, and further damage sustained by British bombs during the liberation campaign of 1941, much of Gonder remains intact.