The name Western Desert was given by the British to their share of the Libyan Desert. It doesn't really exist as a separate desert. As with the Sahara and other deserts that stretch across northern Africa, the Western Desert was once covered by the Sea of Tethys and later became a savannah that supported all manner of wildlife. Giraffes, lions and elephants roamed here in Palaeolithic times, when the landscape is thought to have looked much like the African Sahel. All that you see in the desert – the huge tracts of sand, the vast gravel plains, the fossil beds and limestone rocks – were once the happy hunting grounds that supported nomadic tribes. Gradual climate change led to desertification and turned this vast area into the arid expanse seen today. Only depressions in the desert floor have enough water to support wildlife, agriculture and human settlement.
The ancient Egyptians understood the nature of the desert, which they saw as being synonymous with death and exile. Seth, the god of chaos who killed his brother Osiris, was said to rule here. It is believed the ancient Egyptians maintained links with the oases throughout the Pharaonic era, and with the accession of a Libyan dynasty (22nd dynasty, 945–715 BC), focus increased on the oases and the caravan routes linking the Nile Valley with lands to the west.
The oases enjoyed a period of great prosperity during Roman times, when new wells and improved irrigation led to the production of wheat and grapes for export to Rome. Garrisoned fortresses that protected the oases and trade routes can still be seen in the desert around Al Kharga and Bahariya, and Roman-era temples and tombs lie scattered across all the oases.
When the Romans withdrew from Egypt, the trade routes became a target for attacking nomadic tribes. Trade suffered, the oases went into gradual decline, and the population of settlements shrank. By medieval times, raids by nomads were severe enough to bring Mamluk garrisons to the oases. The fortified villages built to defend the population can still be seen in Dakhla (Al Qasr, Balat) and Siwa (Shali).
The biggest change to the oases after the departure of the Romans occurred in 1958, when President Nasser created the so-called New Valley to relieve population pressure along the Nile. Roads were laid between the previously isolated oases, irrigation systems were modernised and an administration was established. The New Valley Governorate is the largest in Egypt and one of the least densely populated: there has never been enough work to draw significant numbers away from the Nile.
The Western Desert region has remained mostly unscathed throughout Egypt's recent years of political upheaval. Even during the 2011 revolution, Al Kharga was the only Western Desert oasis town to throw itself into the anti-Mubarak fray; after police fired into a crowd of protesters, the protesters set fire to the police station, a courthouse and other buildings. Three demonstrators were reported killed, with about 100 injured. More recently though there have been problems with smugglers crossing the desert from Libya, bringing weapons, drugs and other goods to the Nile Valley. As long as the security situation in Libya remains unstable, the travel warning from many foreign governments will remain: avoid travelling to the oases unless you have to, and no desert safaris allowed.