At the time of research, no buses were operating through the border crossings at Rafah and foreigners are not allowed to use the buses to Taba (Israel) or Sollum (Libya). The Qustul land border and the Argeen land border between Egypt and Sudan reopened in 2014. Several Sudanese bus companies with offices at Aswan bus station now run services to Khartoum (around LE420) via Wadi Halfa (around LE280). Buses leave Aswan between 4am and 6am, daily except Friday. Most services use the Qustul border, which means crossing Lake Nasser near Abu Simbel.
Given the instabilities in Libya and northern Sinai, Egypt's land borders are of less use to travellers than in the past. The southern border into Sudan is currently the only viable option. Be aware of any necessary visas before you set out.
The Amsaad border crossing is officially open, but because of the security situation, travel to Libya is not recommended.
The two land border crossings between Egypt and Sudan reopened in 2014 and a number of Sudanese bus companies now operate Aswan–Wadi Halfa–Khartoum services. The Argeen crossing, on the west bank, is rarely used. The Qustul border crossing, on the east bank, is the most commonly used.
From Aswan, buses drive to Abu Simbel and cross Lake Nasser on a vehicle ferry (one hour) to Qustul, from where it's a short drive (15 minutes) to the border. Be prepared for plenty of hurry-up-and-wait; travellers who have used this route in both directions report long waits (up to five hours) and chaotic proceedings on both the Egyptian and Sudanese side of the border. After all border formalities are finalised the bus carries on to Wadi Halfa and then onwards to Khartoum.
If travelling to Sudan, you need to purchase your Sudanese visa beforehand in either Cairo or Aswan. Travelling north from Sudan into Egypt, Egyptian visas are issued at the border. Egyptian departure tax is LE50.
The border crossing to the Gaza Strip opens only intermittently. Foreign travellers cannot cross at this border.
The Taba border is the main entry/exit point between Egypt and Israel. Technically only the free Sinai-only entry stamp is issued here and full Egyptian visas have to bought in advance. In reality, a full Egyptian visa can be purchased here after paying an extra fee to a local Taba travel agency. Departure tax from Israel is 101NIS. Departure tax from Egypt is LE75. Entry procedures can be slightly shambolic on the Egyptian side.