Latacunga has an airport, but it had no passenger service at the time of research in mid-2018. Buses, of course, go just about everywhere. The most important transportation hubs are Latacunga, Ambato, Baños, Riobamba and Guaranda. For travel to remote areas, you'll often need to switch in these cities.
Getting around by rental car, tour operator or a taxi (rented for the day) is an easier but more expensive way to get to more remote areas.