With its excellent port and strategic location on the northeast coast, Lǚshùn (旅顺; formerly Port Arthur) was the focal point of both Russian and Japanese expansion in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The bloody Russo-Japanese War (1904–05) finally saw the area fall under Japanese colonial rule, which would continue for the next 40 years.
Lǚshùn is worth a visit during any trip to Dàlián. While developers are piling on the high-rise apartments, Lǚshùn is still a relaxed town built on the hills. Most sites are related to military history, but there’s an excellent museum on Liáoníng, as well as a number of scenic lookouts and parks.