The Grand Canal
The world’s longest canal, the Grand Canal (大运河; Dàyùnhé) once meandered for almost 1800km from Běijīng to Hángzhōu, and is a striking example of China’s engineering prowess. Sections of the canal have been silted up for centuries and today perhaps half of it remains seasonally navigable.
The Grand Canal’s construction spanned many centuries. The first 85km were completed in 495 BC, but the mammoth task of linking the Yellow River (Huáng Hé) and the Yangzi River (Cháng Jiāng) was undertaken between AD 605 and 609 by a massive conscripted labour force during Sui times. It was developed again during the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368). The canal enabled the government to capitalise on the growing wealth of the Yellow River Basin and to ship supplies from south to north.
The Jiāngnán section of the canal (Hángzhōu, Sūzhōu, Wúxī and Chángzhōu) is a skein of canals, rivers and branching lakes. There are boat rides along certain sections of the canal in Sūzhōu – with all the surrounding modernity, though, the grandness of the project seems to have all but faded.