With the exception of Angkor Wat, which was restored for use as a Buddhist shrine in the 16th century by the Khmer royalty, the temples of Angkor were left to the jungle for many centuries. The majority of temples are made of sandstone, which tends to dissolve when in prolonged contact with dampness. Bat droppings took their toll, as did sporadic pilfering of sculptures and cut stones. At some monuments, such as Ta Prohm, the jungle had stealthily waged an all-out invasion, and plant life could only be removed at great risk to the structures it now supported in its web of roots.
Initial attempts to clear Angkor under the aegis of the École Française d’Extrême-Orient were fraught with technical difficulties and theoretical disputes. On a technical front, the jungle tended to grow back as soon as it was cleared; on a theoretical front, scholars debated the extent to which temples should be restored and whether later additions, such as Buddha images in Hindu temples, should be removed.
It was not until the 1920s that a solution was found, known as anastylosis. This was the method the Dutch had used to restore Borobudur in Java. Put simply, it was a way of reconstructing monuments using the original materials and in keeping with the original form of the structure. New materials were permitted only where the originals could not be found, and were to be used discreetly. An example of this method can be seen on the causeway leading to the entrance of Angkor Wat, as the right-hand side was originally restored by the French.
The first major restoration job was carried out on Banteay Srei in 1930. It was deemed such a success that many more extensive restoration projects were undertaken elsewhere around Angkor, culminating in the massive Angkor Wat restoration in the 1960s. Large cranes and earth-moving machines were brought in, and the operation was backed by a veritable army of surveying equipment.
The Khmer Rouge victory and Cambodia’s subsequent slide into an intractable civil war resulted in far less damage to Angkor than many had assumed, as EFEO and Ministry of Culture teams had removed many of the statues from the temple sites for protection. Nevertheless, turmoil in Cambodia resulted in a long interruption of restoration work, allowing the jungle to resume its assault on the monuments. The illegal trade of objets d’art on the world art market has also been a major threat to Angkor, although it is the more remote sites that have been targeted recently. Angkor has been under the jurisdiction of the UN Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco) since 1992 as a World Heritage Site, and international and local efforts continue to preserve and reconstruct the monuments. In a sign of real progress, Angkor was removed from Unesco’s endangered list in 2003.
Many of Angkor’s secrets remain to be discovered, as most of the work at the temples has concentrated on restoration efforts above ground rather than archaeological digs and surveys below. Underground is where the real story of Angkor and its people lies – the inscriptions on the temples give us only a partial picture of the gods to whom each structure was dedicated, and the kings who built them.
To learn more about Unesco’s activities at Angkor, visit http://whc.unesco.org. For a great online photographic resource on the temples of Angkor, look no further than www.angkor-ruins.com, a Japanese website with an English translation.
From the time of the earliest Angkorian monuments at Roluos, Khmer architecture was continually evolving, often from the rule of one king to the next. Archaeologists therefore divide the monuments of Angkor into nine periods, named after the foremost example of each period’s architectural style.
The evolution of Khmer architecture was based on a central theme of the temple-mountain, preferably set on a real hill (but an artificial hill was allowed if there weren’t any mountains to hand). The earlier a temple was constructed, the more closely it adheres to this fundamental idea. Essentially, the mountain was represented by a tower mounted on a tiered base. At the summit was the central sanctuary, usually with an open door to the east, and three false doors at the remaining cardinal points of the compass. For Indian Hindus, the Himalayas represent Mt Meru, the home of the gods, while the Khmer kings of old adopted Phnom Kulen as their symbolic Mt Meru.
By the time of the Bakheng period, this layout was being embellished. The summit of the central tower was crowned with five ‘peaks’ – four at the points of the compass and one in the centre. Even Angkor Wat features this layout, though on a grandiose scale. Other features that came to be favoured include an entry tower and a causeway lined with naga (mythical serpent) balustrades leading up to the temple.
As the temples grew in ambition, the central tower became a less prominent feature, although it remained the focus of the temple. Later temples saw the central tower flanked by courtyards and richly decorated galleries. Smaller towers were placed on gates and on the corners of walls, their overall number often of religious or astrological significance.
These refinements and additions eventually culminated in Angkor Wat, which effectively showcases the evolution of Angkorian architecture. The architecture of the Bayon period breaks with tradition in temples such as Ta Prohm and Preah Khan. In these temples, the horizontal layout of the galleries, corridors and courtyards seems to completely eclipse the central tower.
The curious narrowness of the corridors and doorways in these structures can be explained by the fact that Angkorian architects never mastered the flying buttress to build a full arch. They engineered arches by laying blocks on top of each other, until they met at a central point; known as false arches, they can only support very short spans.
Most of the major sandstone blocks around Angkor include small circular holes. These originally held wooden stakes that were used to lift and position the stones during construction before being sawn off.
Motifs, Symbols & Characters Around Angkor
The temples of Angkor are intricately carved with myths and legends, symbols and signs, and a cast of characters in the thousands. Deciphering them can be quite a challenge, so we’ve highlighted some of the most commonly seen around the majestic temples. For more help understanding the carvings of Angkor, pick up a copy of Images of the Gods by Vittorio Roveda.
Apsaras Heavenly nymphs or goddesses, also known as devadas; these beautiful female forms decorate the walls of many temples.
Asuras These devils feature extensively in representations of the Churning of the Ocean of Milk, such as at Angkor Wat.
Devas The ‘good gods’ in the creation myth of the Churning of the Ocean of Milk.
Flame The flame motif is found flanking steps and doorways and is intended to purify pilgrims as they enter the temple.
Garuda Vehicle of Vishnu; this half-man, half-bird creature features in some temples and was combined with his old enemy, the nagas, to promote religious unity under Jayavarman VII.
Kala The temple guardian appointed by Shiva; he had such an appetite that he devoured his own body and appears only as a giant head above doorways. Also known as Rehu.
Linga A phallic symbol of fertility, lingas would have originally been located within the towers of most Hindu temples.
Lotus A symbol of purity, the lotus features extensively in the shape of towers, the shape of steps to entrances and in decoration.
Makara A giant sea serpent with a reticulated jaw; features on the corner of pediments, spewing forth a naga or some other creature.
Naga The multiheaded serpent, half-brother and enemy of garudas. Controls the rains and, therefore, the prosperity of the kingdom; seen on causeways, doorways and roofs. The seven-headed naga, a feature at many temples, represents the rainbow, which acts as a bridge between heaven and earth.
Nandi The mount of Shiva; there are several statues of Nandi dotted about the temples, although many have been damaged or stolen by looters.
Rishi A Hindu wise man or ascetic, also known as essai; these bearded characters are often seen sitting cross-legged at the base of pillars or flanking walls.
Vine Another symbol of purity, the vine graces doorways and lintels and is meant to help cleanse visitors on their journey to this heaven on earth, the abode of the gods.
Yama God of death who presides over the underworld and passes judgement on whether people continue to heaven or hell.
Yoni Female fertility symbol that is combined with the linga to produce holy water infused with the essence of life.
Fertility symbols are prominent around the temples of Angkor. The linga is a phallic symbol and would have originally been located within the towers of most Hindu temples. It sits inside a yoni, the female fertility symbol, combining to produce holy water, charged with the sexual energy of creation. Brahmans poured the water over the linga and it drained through the yoni and out of the temples through elaborate gutters to anoint the pilgrims outside.
The god-kings of Angkor were dedicated builders. Each king was expected to dedicate a temple to his patron god, most commonly Shiva or Vishnu, during the time of Angkor. Then there were the ancestors, including mother, father, and grandparents (both maternal and paternal), which meant another half dozen temples or more. Finally there was the mausoleum or king’s temple, intended to deify the monarch and project his power, and each of these had to be bigger and better than one’s predecessor. This accounts for the staggering architectural productivity of the Khmers at this time and the epic evolution of temple architecture.
The Long Strider
One of Vishnu’s best-loved incarnations was when he appeared as the dwarf Vamana, and proceeded to reclaim the world from the evil demon king Bali. The dwarf politely asked the demon king for a comfortable patch of ground upon which to meditate, saying that the patch need only be big enough so that he could easily walk across it in three paces. The demon agreed, only to see the dwarf swell into a mighty giant who strode across the universe in three enormous steps. From this legend, depicted at Prasat Kravan, Vishnu is sometimes known as the ‘long strider’.
Guide to the Guides
Countless books on Angkor have been written over the years, with more and more new titles coming out, reflecting Angkor’s rebirth as the world’s top cultural hotspot. Here are just a few of the best:
A Guide to the Angkor Monuments (Maurice Glaize) The definitive 1944 guide, downloadable for free at www.theangkorguide.com.
A Passage Through Angkor (Mark Standen) One of the best photographic records of the temples.
A Pilgrimage to Angkor (Pierre Loti) One of the most beautifully written books on Angkor, based on the author’s 1910 journey.
Ancient Angkor (Claude Jacques) Written by one of the foremost scholars on Angkor, this is a very readable guide to the temples, with photos by Michael Freeman.
Angkor: An Introduction to the Temples (Dawn Rooney) Probably the most popular contemporary guide.
Angkor – Heart of an Asian Empire (Bruno Dagens) The story of the ‘discovery’ of Angkor, complete with lavish illustrations.
Angkor: Millennium of Glory (various authors) A fascinating introduction to the history, culture, sculpture and religion of the Angkorian period.
Khmer Heritage in the Old Siamese Provinces of Cambodia (Etienne Aymonier) Aymonier journeyed through Cambodia in 1901 and visited many of the major temples.
The Angkor Guide (Andrew Booth; www.angkorguidebook.com) Excellent guide to the temples of Angkor with input from leading academics, beautiful overlay illustrations and profits helping to fund education in Siem Reap.
The Customs of Cambodia (Chou Ta-Kuan) The only eyewitness account of Angkor, by a Chinese emissary who spent a year at the Khmer capital in the late 13th century.