The Mossi & the French
Little is known about Burkina Faso's early history, though archaeological finds suggest that the country was populated as far back as the Stone Age. Its modern history starts with the Mossi peoples (now almost half of Burkina Faso’s population), who moved westward from settlements near the Niger River in the 13th century; they founded their first kingdom in what is now Ouagadougou. Three more Mossi states were subsequently established in other parts of the country, all paying homage to Ouagadougou, the strongest. The government of each of the Mossi states was highly organised, with ministers, courts and a cavalry known for its devastating attacks against the Muslim empires in Mali.
During the colonial invasion of Africa in the second half of the 19th century, the French exploited rivalries between the different Mossi kingdoms and established their sway over the region. At first the former Mossi states were assimilated into the Colonie du Haut Sénégal-Niger. Then, in 1919, the area was hived off for administrative expedience as a separate colony, Haute Volta (Upper Volta).
World War II brought about profound changes in France's relationship with its colonies. The Mossi, like numerous other people in Africa, started challenging the colonial hegemony. The Upper Volta became a state in 1947; in 1956, France agreed to give its colonies their own governments, with independence quickly following in 1960.
Following independence, dreams of freedom and prosperity quickly evaporated. Between 1960 and 1983, the country experienced six coups and counter-coups and the economy stagnated. Then in 1983, Captain Thomas Sankara, an ambitious young left-wing military star, seized power.
Over the next four years 'Thom Sank' (as he was popularly known) recast the country. He changed its name to Burkina Faso (meaning 'Land of the Incorruptible'), restructured the economy to promote self-reliance in rural areas and tackled corruption with rare zeal. He was ahead of his time, promoting women's rights and standing up against Western paradigms on aid and development. But his authoritarian grip on power and intolerance towards those who didn't share his ideals were to be his downfall: in late 1987 a group of junior officers seized power and Sankara was killed.
The Compaoré Years
The new junta was headed by Captain Blaise Compaoré, Sankara's former friend and co-revolutionary. In late 1991 Compaoré was elected president. But as the sole candidate – with low voter turnout and the assassination of Clément Ouédraogo, the leading opposition figure, a couple of weeks later – his legitimacy remained weak.
In a bid to mark a clear break with Sankara, Compaoré immediately orchestrated a U-turn on the economy, overturning nationalisation and bringing the country back to the IMF fold. He was reelected three times, in 1998, 2005 and 2010, each time with more than 80% of the vote. In July 2013, thousands of demonstrators took to the streets over plans to create a senate; they continued to demonstrate into the following year in opposition to possible plans by President Compaoré to extend his rule. The revolt culminated with a mass uprising in October 2014, driving Compaoré out of office and leading to the establishment of a provisional government.