Bolivia has land borders with Argentina (at Villazón, Yacuiba and Bermejo); Brazil (via Quijarro on the main highway from Santa Cruz, and a smaller crossing at San Matías), Chile (at Tambo Quemado, Hito Cajón and Ollagüe); Paraguay (the trans-Chaco crossing) and Peru (at Kasani and Desaguadero).
US citizens and citizens of a number of other countries need a visa to enter Bolivia.
There are three overland crossings between Argentina and Bolivia.
Villazón/La Quiaca, with connections by bus and train north to Tupiza and Uyuni in Bolivia and south to Salta in Argentina.
Yacuiba/Pocitos, in the Chaco region. Buses traveling further into Argentina leave every couple of hours.
Bermejo/Aguas Blancas, south of Tarija, at an international bridge that leads on to a highway going further into Argentina. Bus companies from Tarija to Salta in Argentina use this crossing.
Note that proof of yellow-fever vaccination is usually needed when crossing into Brazil. If you don’t have one, you can get a shot at the border (in relatively sanitary conditions).
Note that meat, fruit and food produce (including coca leaves) cannot be taken from Bolivia into Chile and will be confiscated at the border.
Tambo Quemado/Chungará The most popular route between Chile and Bolivia is by bus from La Paz to Arica, via the crossing at Tambo Quemado.
Hito Cajón/San Pedro A convenient alternative for those doing the 4WD Southwest Circuit tour is to be dropped off on the last day at Hito Cajón (8am to 11pm, although it’s wise to be there before 6pm) and head for San Pedro, Chile (many tour operators now offer transfers). From here, you can pick up a bus. Note the one-hour trip between the Bolivian border and San Pedro – it’s better to arrange transport for this in advance, in case there aren’t any taxis.
Ollagüe/Avaroa A crossing can be made by road from Uyuni to Calama, where the border crossing is in Ollagüe (8am to 8pm).
Trans-Chaco crossing The trans-Chaco bus trip between Santa Cruz in Bolivia and Asunción in Paraguay is a daily service. This is a notorious smuggling route, so expect to be lined up with your bags while customs officials and sniffer dogs rifle through your possessions.
Kasani–Yunguyo Bolivia is normally reached overland from Peru via Lake Titicaca and the crossing at Kasani–Yunguyo.
Desaguadero A quicker, but less appealing route is via Desaguadero on the southern side of the lake.
You can enter Bolivia by road from any of the neighboring countries. The Trans-Chaco road from Paraguay is in a dreadful state, especially beyond the town of Mariscal Estigarribia, and should be considered only if you are driving a 4WD. The main routes from Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Peru pose no significant problems.
Foreigners entering Bolivia from another country need a hoja de ruta (circulation card, www.dgsc.gob.bo/hoja-ruta.php), available from the Servicio Nacional de Tránsito/Aduana at the border. This document must be presented and stamped at all police posts – variously known as trancas, tránsitos or controles – which are found along highways and just outside major cities. Peajes (tolls) are often charged at these checkpoints and vehicles may be searched for contraband.
Depending on which country you enter from, some intercountry buses booked through an agency might cover your entire route; at other times you’ll switch to an associated bus company once you cross the border. If traveling by local bus, you’ll usually need to catch onward buses once you’ve made your border crossing.