Exploring Australia by road is the quintessential way to get around this vast nation. Whether you're focussing your visit on one state or several, road trips are a popular Australian experience. Pick up a copy of Lonely Planet's Australia's Best Trips for more on 2WD itineraries for cars, vans and campervans.
For 4WD or motorcycles, you'll need specialist skills, guidebooks, maps, and equipment. Contact one of the automobile clubs for specific recommendations.
Under the auspices of the Australian Automobile Association there are automobile clubs in each state, which is handy when it comes to insurance, regulations, maps and roadside assistance. Club membership (around $100 to $150) can save you a lot of trouble if things go wrong mechanically. The major Australian auto clubs generally offer reciprocal rights in other states and territories.
National Roads & Motorists Association New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory
Buying your own vehicle gives you the freedom to go where and when your mood takes you, and may work out cheaper than renting in the long run.
Downsides include dealing with confusing and expensive registration rules, roadworthy certificates and insurance; forking out for maintenance and repairs; and selling the vehicle when you're done – which may be more difficult than expected.
If you're buying a secondhand vehicle, keep in mind the extra costs on top of the purchase price when deciding your budget: stamp duty, registration, transfer fee, insurance and maintenance.
Registration When you buy a vehicle in Australia you need to transfer the registration into your own name within 14 days. Each state has slightly different requirements. It is usually something you can do online. Similarly, when selling a vehicle you need to advise the state or territory road-transport authority of the sale and change of name.
Roadworthiness Sellers are required to provide a roadworthy certificate when transferring registration in most states except WA, SA and Tasmania where inspections/certificates are only required in certain circumstances
If the vehicle you're considering doesn't have a roadworthy certificate, ask for a roadworthiness check before you agree on a sales price. This can cost $100 but will save you money on unknown repair costs. Road-transport authorities have lists of licensed vehicle testers.
Gas certificate In Queensland, if a vehicle runs on gas, a gas certificate must be provided by the seller in order to transfer the registration. In the ACT, vehicles running on gas require an annual inspection.
Immobiliser fitting In WA it's compulsory to have an approved immobiliser fitted to most vehicles (not motorcycles) before transfer of registration; this is the buyer's responsibility.
Changing state of registration Note that registering a vehicle in a different state to the one it was previously registered in can be time-consuming and expensive. Something to be aware of when planning to sell.
Renewing registration Registration is usually paid annually Australia-wide, but most states and territories also give you the option of renewing for three or six months.
For more information about processes and costs:
Access Canberra ACT
Department of Planning, Transport & Infrastructure South Australia
Department of Transport Northern Territory
Department of Transport Western Australia
Department of Transport & Main Roads Queensland
It's prudent to have a car checked by an independent expert − auto clubs offer vehicle checks, and road transport authorities have lists of licensed garages − but if you're flying solo, here are some things to check:
When test driving the car, also check the following:
Larger car-hire companies have offices in major cities and airports. Most companies require drivers to be over the age of 21, though in some cases it's 18, and in others 25.
Suggestions to assist in the process:
The following websites offer last-minute discounts and the opportunity to compare rates between the big operators:
Having a 4WD is essential for off-the-beaten-track driving into the outback. The major car-hire companies have 4WDs.
Renting a 4WD is affordable if a few people get together – something like a Nissan X-Trail (which can get you through most, but not all, tracks) costs $100 to $150 per day; for a Toyota Landcruiser you're looking at $150 to $200, which should include unlimited kilometres.
Check the insurance conditions, especially the excess (the amount you pay in the event of accident and which can be up to $5000), as they can be onerous. A refundable bond is also often required – this can be as much as $7500. The excess and policies might not cover damage caused when travelling off-road (which they don't always tell you when you pick up your vehicle). Some also name specific tracks as off-limits and you may not be covered by the insurance if you ignore this.
Companies for campervan hire − with rates from around $90 (two-berth) or $150 (four-berth) per day, usually with minimum five-day hire and unlimited kilometres – include the following:
2WD Depending on where you want to travel, a regulation 2WD vehicle might suffice. They're cheaper to hire, buy and run than 4WDs and are more readily available. Most are fuel efficient and easy to repair and sell. Downsides: no off-road capability and no room to sleep!
4WD Good for outback travel as they can access almost any track for which you get a hankering, and there might even be space to sleep in the back. Downsides: poor fuel economy, awkward to park and more expensive to hire or buy.
Campervan Creature comforts at your fingertips: sink, fridge, cupboards, beds, kitchen and space to relax. Downsides: slow and often not fuel-efficient, not great on dirt roads and too large for nipping around the city.
Motorcycle The Australian climate is great for riding, and bikes are handy in city traffic. Downsides: Australia isn't particularly bike-friendly in terms of driver awareness; there's limited luggage capacity, and exposure to the elements.
Third-party insurance With the exception of NSW and Queensland, third-party personal-injury insurance is included in the vehicle registration cost, ensuring that every registered vehicle carries at least the minimum insurance (if registering in NSW or Queensland you'll need to arrange this privately). It's recommended to extend that minimum to at least third-party property insurance – minor collisions can be incredibly expensive.
Comprehensive cover Consider taking out comprehensive car insurance if you want your own vehicle insured, even when the accident is not your fault. An uninsured driver will be hard to extract money from especially if you're not going to be in Australia for long.
A few simple actions can help minimise the impact your journey has on the environment.
For more info, see www.greenvehicleguide.gov.au.
Fuel types Unleaded and diesel fuel is available from petrol stations sporting well-known international brand names. LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) has waned in popularity with fewer places stocking refills – it's best to have dual-fuel capacity. Electric recharging spots are popping up all over Australia, making hybrid and electric road trips a viable alternative.
Costs Prices vary between the city and country, days of the week, a political situation. At the time of writing petrol hovered around $1.50 a litre, but under certain conditions it can be as high as $2 per litre.
Availability In cities and towns, petrol stations are plentiful, but distances between fill-ups can be huge in the countryside so pay attention to your fuel gauge. On main roads there'll be a small town or roadhouse roughly every 200km.
To drive in Australia you'll need to hold a current driving licence issued in English from your home country. If the licence isn't in English, you'll also need to carry an International Driving Permit, issued in your home country.
Australians drive on the left-hand side of the road and all cars are right-hand drive.
Give way An important road rule is 'give way to the right' − if an intersection is unmarked (unusual), and at roundabouts, you must give way to vehicles entering the intersection from your right.
Speed limits The general speed limit in built-up and residential areas is 50km/h. Near schools, the limit is usually 25km/h (sometimes 40km/h) in the morning and afternoon. On the highway it's usually 100km/h or 110km/h; in the NT it's either 110km/h or 130km/h. Police have speed radar guns and cameras and are fond of using them in strategic locations.
Seat belts & car seats It's the law to wear seat belts in the front and back seats; you're likely to get a fine if you don't. Small children must be belted into an approved safety seat.
Drinking & driving Random breath tests are common. If you're caught with a blood-alcohol level of more than 0.05%, expect a fine and the loss of your licence. Police can randomly pull any driver over for a breathalyser or drug test. Best just to drive sober and make it alive.
Mobile phones Using a mobile phone while driving is illegal in Australia (excluding hands-free technology).
For up-to-date information on road conditions around the country, check the following:
Australian Bureau of Meteorology Weather information.
Department of Planning, Transport & Infrastructure SA road conditions.
Live Traffic NSW NSW road conditions.
Main Roads Western Australia WA road conditions.
Road Report NT road conditions.
Traffic & Travel Information Queensland road conditions.
Parks & Wildlife Service Tasmania
Fatigue Be wary of driver fatigue; driving long distances (particularly in hot weather) can be utterly exhausting. Falling asleep at the wheel is a serious risk. Stop and rest regularly − do some exercise, change drivers or have a coffee.
Road trains Be careful overtaking road trains (trucks with two or three trailers stretching for as long as 50m); you'll need distance and plenty of speed. On single-lane tracks get right off the road when one approaches. Stones or debris can clip your car as it passes.
Unsealed roads Unsealed road conditions vary wildly and cars perform differently when braking and turning on dirt. Don't exceed 70km/h on dirt roads; if you go faster, you won't have time to respond to a sharp turn, stock on the road or an unexpected pothole.