Africa in detail

Health & insurance

As long as you stay up to date with your vaccinations and take some basic preventive measures, you'd have to be pretty unlucky to succumb to any serious health hazards. Africa certainly has an impressive selection of tropical diseases on offer, but you're much more likely to get a bout of diarrhoea (in fact, you should bank on it), a cold or an infected mosquito bite than an exotic disease such as Rift Valley or West Nile fever. When it comes to injuries (as opposed to illness), the most likely reason for needing medical help in Africa is as a result of road accidents – vehicles are rarely well maintained, the roads are potholed and poorly lit, and drink driving is common.


Dr Caroline Evans

Before You Go

Pre-Travel Checklist

  • Get a check-up from your dentist and from your doctor if you take any regular medication or have a chronic illness, eg high blood pressure or asthma.
  • Organise spare contact lenses and glasses (and take your optical prescription with you).
  • Assemble a first-aid and medical kit.
  • Arrange necessary vaccinations. Don't leave this until the last minute. Many vaccines don't take effect until two weeks after you've been immunised, so visit a doctor four to eight weeks before departure. Ask your doctor for an International Certificate of Vaccination (otherwise known as the yellow booklet), which will list all the vaccinations you've received. This is mandatory for the African countries that require proof of yellow fever vaccination upon entry, but it's a good idea to carry it anyway wherever you travel.
  • Become a member of the International Association for Medical Advice to Travellers (IAMAT;, which lists trusted English-speaking doctors.
  • If you'll be spending significant time in remote areas, you might like to do a first-aid course (contact the Red Cross or St John's Ambulance) or attend a remote medicine first-aid course, such as that offered by the Royal Geographical Society ( or the American Red Cross (
  • Bring medications in their original containers, clearly labelled.
  • A signed and dated letter from your physician describing all medical conditions and medications, including generic names, is also a good idea.
  • If carrying syringes or needles, be sure to have a physician's letter documenting their medical necessity.

Health Insurance

Find out in advance whether your insurance plan will make payments directly to providers or will reimburse you later for overseas health expenditures (in many countries doctors expect payment in cash). It's vital to ensure that your travel insurance will cover the emergency transport to get you to a hospital in a major city, to better medical facilities elsewhere in Africa, or all the way home, by air and with a medical attendant if necessary. Not all insurance covers this, so check the contract carefully. If you need medical help, your insurance company might be able to help locate the nearest hospital or clinic, or you can ask at your hotel. In an emergency, contact your embassy or consulate.

Medical Checklist

Consider packing the following:

  • Acetaminophen (paracetamol) or aspirin
  • Acetazolamide (Diamox) for altitude sickness (prescription only)
  • Adhesive or paper tape
  • Anti-inflammatory drugs (eg ibuprofen)
  • Antibacterial ointment (eg Bactroban) for cuts and abrasions (prescription only)
  • Antibiotics (prescription only), eg ciprofloxacin (Ciproxin) or norfloxacin (Utinor)
  • Antidiarrhoeal drugs (eg loperamide)
  • Antihistamines (for hay fever and allergic reactions)
  • Antimalaria pills
  • Bandages, gauze, gauze rolls
  • DEET-containing insect repellent for the skin
  • Iodine tablets (for water purification)
  • Oral rehydration salts
  • Permethrin-containing insect spray for clothing, tents and bed nets
  • Pocket knife
  • Scissors, safety pins, tweezers
  • Sterile needles, syringes and fluids if travelling to remote areas
  • Steroid cream or hydrocortisone cream (for allergic rashes)
  • Sunblock
  • Thermometer

If you are travelling through a malarial area – particularly an area in which falciparum malaria predominates – consider taking a self-diagnostic kit that can identify malaria in the blood from a finger prick.


There is a wealth of travel-health advice on the internet. The Lonely Planet website at is a good place to start. The World Health Organization publishes the helpful International Travel and Health, available free at Other useful websites include MD Travel Health ( and Fit for Travel (

Official government travel health websites:





Further Reading

  • A Comprehensive Guide to Wilderness and Travel Medicine (Eric A Weiss; 1998)
  • The Essential Guide to Travel Health (Jane Wilson-Howarth; 2009)
  • Healthy Travel Africa (Isabelle Young; 2000)
  • How to Stay Healthy Abroad (Richard Dawood; 2002)
  • Travel in Health (Graham Fry; 1994)
  • Travel with Children (Sophie Caupeil et al; 2015)

In Transit

Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)

Blood clots can form in the legs during flights, chiefly because of prolonged immobility. This formation of clots is known as deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and the longer the flight, the greater the risk. Although most blood clots are reabsorbed uneventfully, some might break off and travel through the blood vessels to the lungs, where they could cause life-threatening complications.

The chief symptom of DVT is swelling or pain of the foot, ankle or calf, usually but not always on just one side. When a blood clot travels to the lungs, it can cause chest pain and breathing difficulty. Travellers with any of these symptoms should immediately seek medical attention.

To prevent the development of DVT on long flights you should walk about the cabin, perform isometric compressions of the leg muscles (ie contract the leg muscles while sitting), drink plenty of fluids, and avoid alcohol.

Jet Lag & Motion Sickness

If you're crossing more than five time zones you could suffer jet lag, resulting in insomnia, fatigue, malaise or nausea. To avoid jet lag try drinking plenty of fluids (nonalcoholic) and eating light meals. Upon arrival, get exposure to natural sunlight and readjust your schedule (for meals, sleep etc) as soon as possible.

Antihistamines such as dimenhydrinate (Dramamine) and meclizine (Antivert, Bonine) are usually the first choice for treating motion sickness. Their main side effect is drowsiness. A herbal alternative is ginger (in the form of ginger tea, biscuits or crystallised ginger), which works like a charm for some people.

In Africa

Availability & Cost of Health Care

Health care in Africa is varied: it can be excellent in the major cities, which generally have well-trained doctors and nurses, but it is often patchy off the beaten track.

Most drugs can be purchased over the counter throughout Africa, without a prescription. Many drugs for sale within Africa might be ineffective – they might be counterfeit or might not have been stored under the right conditions. The most common examples of counterfeit drugs are malaria tablets and expensive antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin. Most drugs are available in capital cities, but in remote villages you will be lucky to find a couple of paracetamol tablets. It is strongly recommended that all drugs for chronic diseases be brought with you from home. Also, the availability and efficacy of condoms cannot be relied upon – bring all the contraception you'll need. Condoms bought in Africa might not be of the same quality as in Europe, North America or Australia, and they might have been stored in too hot an environment. Keep all condoms as cool as you can.

There is a high risk of contracting HIV from infected blood if you receive a blood transfusion in Africa. The BloodCare Foundation ( is a useful source of safe, screened blood, which can be transported to any part of the world within 24 hours.

The cost of health care might seem very cheap compared to first-world countries, but good care and drugs might be not be available. Evacuation to good medical care (within Africa or to your own country) can be very expensive indeed. Unfortunately, adequate – let alone good – health care is available only to very few residents of Africa.

Infectious Diseases


Cholera is usually only a problem during natural or artificial disasters, eg war, floods or earthquakes, although small outbreaks can also occur at other times. Travellers are rarely affected.

Spread through Contaminated drinking water.

Symptoms and effects Profuse watery diarrhoea, which causes collapse if fluids are not replaced quickly.

Prevention and treatment Most cases could be avoided by close attention to good drinking water and by avoiding potentially contaminated food. Treatment is by fluid replacement (orally or via a drip), but sometimes antibiotics are needed. Self-treatment is not advised.

Dengue Fever (Break-Bone Fever)

Present Sudan, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Senegal, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Somalia, Madagascar, Mozambique and South Africa.

Spread through Mosquito bites.

Symptoms and effects A feverish illness with headache and muscle pains similar to those experienced with a bad, prolonged attack of influenza. There might be a rash. In rare cases in Africa this becomes Severe Dengue Fever, with worsening symptoms including vomiting, rapid breathing and abdominal pain. Seek medical help, as this can be fatal.

Prevention and treatment Mosquito bites should be avoided whenever possible. Self-treatment: paracetamol and rest.


Present Throughout Africa.

Spread through Close respiratory contact.

Symptoms and effects Usually causes a temperature and a severe sore throat. Sometimes a membrane forms across the throat, and a tracheostomy is needed to prevent suffocation.

Prevention and treatment Vaccination is recommended for all travellers, particularly those likely to be in close contact with the local population in infected areas. More important for long stays than for short-term trips. The vaccine is given as an injection alone or with tetanus, and lasts 10 years. Self-treatment: none.

Ebola & Marburg Viruses

Present Massive outbreak in Sierra Leone, Guinea and Liberia from 2013 to 2016 killed an estimated 11,310 people. Smaller outbreaks in recent decades throughout West and Central Africa (especially Congo, the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Central African Republic and Sudan) and in Uganda.

Spread through Eating bushmeat is considered a common cause of Ebola; spread through bodily fluids.

Symptoms and effects Haemorrhagic fever, which is usually fatal.

Prevention and treatment. Both diseases are rare in travellers, although at least one traveller in Uganda is believed to have contracted the Marburg virus after visiting caves. Self-treatment: none.


Present Most parts of West, Central, East and Southern Africa.

Spread through Mosquito bites, then tiny worms migrating in the lymphatic system.

Symptoms and effects Can include localised itching and swelling of the legs and/or genitalia.

Prevention and treatment Avoid mosquito bites. Treatment is available, but self-treatments are not.

Hepatitis A

Present Throughout Africa.

Spread through Contaminated food (particularly shellfish) and water.

Symptoms and effects Jaundice and, although it is rarely fatal, it can cause prolonged lethargy and delayed recovery. If you've had hepatitis A, you shouldn't drink alcohol for up to six months afterwards, but once you've recovered, there won't be any long-term problems. The first symptoms include dark urine and a yellow colour to the whites of the eyes. Sometimes a fever and abdominal pain might be present.

Prevention and treatment Hepatitis A vaccine (Avaxim, VAQTA, Havrix) is given as an injection: a single dose will give protection for up to a year, and a booster after a year gives 10-year protection. Hepatitis A and typhoid vaccines can also be given as a single-dose vaccine, hepatyrix or viatim. Self-treatment: none.

Hepatitis B

Present Thoughout Africa.

Spread through Infected blood, contaminated needles and sexual intercourse. It can also be spread from an infected mother to the baby during childbirth.

Symptoms and effects Attacks the liver, causing jaundice and occasionally liver failure. Most people recover completely, but some people might be chronic carriers of the virus, which could lead eventually to cirrhosis or liver cancer.

Prevention and treatment Those visiting high-risk areas for long periods or at social or occupational risk should be immunised. Many countries now give hepatitis B as part of the routine childhood vaccination. It is given singly or can be given at the same time as hepatitis A. A course will give protection for at least five years. It can be given over four weeks or six months. Self-treatment: none.


Present Throughout Africa.

Spread through Infected blood and blood products, by sexual intercourse with an infected partner, and from an infected mother to her baby during childbirth and breastfeeding. It can be spread through 'blood to blood' contacts, such as with contaminated instruments during medical, dental, acupuncture and other body-piercing procedures, and through sharing used intravenous needles.

Prevention and treatment At present there is no cure; medication that might keep the disease under control is available, but many countries in Africa do not have access to it for their own citizens, let alone for travellers. If you think you might have put yourself at risk of HIV infection, a blood test is necessary; a three-month gap after the exposure and before testing is required to allow antibodies to appear in the blood. Self-treatment: none.


Present North Africa.

Spread through Bite of an infected sandfly.

Symptoms and effects Can cause a slowly growing skin lump or ulcer (the cutaneous form) and can sometimes develop into a serious life-threatening fever with anaemia and weight loss. Dogs can also be carriers of leishmaniasis.

Prevention and treatment Sandfly and dog bites should be avoided whenever possible. Self-treatment: none.


Present West and Southern Africa; in Chad, Congo, Sudan and DRC in Central Africa; in Algeria and Morocco in North Africa; and in Ethiopia and Somalia in East Africa.

Spread through The excreta of infected rodents, especially rats.

Symptoms and effects A fever, sometimes jaundice, hepatitus and renal failure.

Prevention and treatment It is unusual for travellers to be affected unless living in poor sanitary conditions. Self-treatment: none.


Present Endemic in Central, East, West and Southern Africa; slight risk in North Africa. The risk of malarial transmission at altitudes higher than 2000m is rare.

Spread through The bite of the female Anopheles mosquito. There are several types of malaria; falciparum malaria is the most dangerous type and the predominant form in Africa. Infection rates vary with season and climate, so check out the situation before departure. Unlike most other diseases regularly encountered by travellers, there is no vaccination against malaria (yet). However, several different drugs are used to prevent malaria, and new ones are in the pipeline. Up-to-date advice from a travel health clinic is essential, as some medication is more suitable for some travellers than others. The pattern of drug-resistant malaria is changing rapidly, so what was advised several years ago might no longer be the case.

Symptoms and effects The early stages include headaches, fevers, generalised aches and pains, and malaise, which could be mistaken for flu. Other symptoms can include abdominal pain, diarrhoea and a cough.

Prevention and treatment Anyone who develops a fever in a malarial area should assume malarial infection until a blood test proves negative, even if you have been taking antimalarial medication. If not treated, the next stage could develop within 24 hours (particularly if falciparum malaria is the parasite): jaundice, then reduced consciousness and coma (also known as cerebral malaria) followed by death. Treatment in hospital is essential, though the death rate might still be as high as 10% even in the best intensive-care facilities.

Many travellers are under the impression that malaria is a mild illness, that treatment is always easy and successful, and that taking antimalarial drugs causes more illness through side effects than actually getting malaria. In Africa, this is unfortunately not true. Side effects depend on the drug being taken. Doxycycline can cause heartburn and indigestion; mefloquine (Larium) can cause anxiety attacks, insomnia and nightmares, and (rarely) severe psychiatric disorders; chloroquine can cause nausea and hair loss; and proguanil can cause mouth ulcers. Side effects are not universal, and can be minimised by taking medication correctly, eg with food. Also, some people should not take a particular antimalarial drug, eg people with epilepsy should avoid mefloquine, and doxycycline should not be taken by pregnant women or children younger than 12.

People of all ages can contract malaria, and falciparum malaria causes the most severe illness. Repeated infections might result eventually in less serious illness. Malaria in pregnancy frequently results in miscarriage or premature labour. Adults who have survived childhood malaria have developed immunity and usually only develop mild cases of malaria; most Western travellers have no immunity at all. Immunity wanes after 18 months of nonexposure, so even if you have had malaria in the past and used to live in a malaria-prone area, you might no longer be immune. One million children die annually from malaria in Africa.

If you decide that you really do not wish to take antimalarial drugs, you must understand the risks, and be obsessive about avoiding mosquito bites. Use nets and insect repellent, and report any fever or flulike symptoms to a doctor as soon as possible. Some people advocate homeopathic preparations against malaria, such as Demal200, but as yet there is no conclusive evidence that they are effective, and many homeopaths do not recommend their use.

If you are planning a journey through a malarial area, particularly where falciparum malaria predominates, consider taking stand-by treatment. Emergency stand-by treatment should be seen as emergency treatment aimed at saving the patient's life and not as routine self-medication. It should be advised only if you will be remote from medical facilities and have been advised about the symptoms of malaria and how to use the medication. Medical advice should be sought as soon as possible to confirm whether the treatment has been successful. The type of stand-by treatment used will depend on local conditions, such as drug resistance, and on what antimalarial drugs are being used before stand-by treatment. This is worthwhile because you want to avoid contracting a particularly serious form such as cerebral malaria, which affects the brain and central nervous system and can be fatal in 24 hours. Self-diagnostic kits, which can identify malaria in the blood from a finger prick, are also available in the West.

The risks from malaria to both mother and foetus during pregnancy are considerable. Unless good medical care can be absolutely guaranteed, travel throughout Africa when pregnant – particularly to malarial areas – should be discouraged unless essential. Self-treatment: see stand-by treatment if you are more than 24 hours away from medical help.

Meningococcal Meningitis

Present Central, West and East Africa; and only in Namibia, Malawi, Mozambique and Zambia in Southern Africa.

Spread through Close respiratory contact and is more likely in crowded situations, such as dormitories, buses and clubs. Infection is uncommon in travellers. Vaccination is recommended for long stays and especially towards the end of the dry season, which is normally from June to November.

Symptoms and effects Fever, severe headache, neck stiffness and a red rash.

Prevention and treatment Immediate medical treatment is necessary. The ACWY vaccine is recommended for all travellers in sub-Saharan Africa. This vaccine is different from the meningococcal meningitis C vaccine given to children and adolescents in some countries, and it is safe to be given both types of vaccine. Self-treatment: none.

Onchocerciasis (River Blindness)

Present Central, West and East Africa; and Malawi in Southern Africa.

Spread through The bite of a small fly.

Symptoms and effects Intensely itchy, red, sore eyes.

Prevention and treatment Travellers are rarely severely affected. Treatment in a specialised clinic is curative. Self-treatment: none.


Present Throughout Africa.

Spread through Contaminated food and water.

Symptoms and effects Polio can be carried asymptomatically (ie showing no symptoms) and can cause a transient fever. In rare cases it causes weakness or paralysis of one or more muscles, which might be permanent.

Prevention and treatment It is one of the vaccines given in childhood and should be boosted every 10 years, either orally (a drop on the tongue) or as an injection. Self-treatment: none.


Present Throughout Africa.

Spread through The bites or licks of an infected animal on broken skin.

Symptoms and effects It is always fatal once the clinical symptoms start (which might be up to several months after an infected bite), so postbite vaccination should be given as soon as possible.

Prevention and treatment Avoid contact with animals, particularly dogs. Postbite vaccination (whether or not you've been vaccinated before the bite) prevents the virus from spreading to the central nervous system. Animal handlers should be vaccinated, as should those travelling to remote areas where a reliable source of postbite vaccine is not available within 24 hours. Three preventive injections are needed over a month. If you have not been vaccinated you will need a course of five injections starting 24 hours or as soon as possible after the injury. If you have been vaccinated, you will need fewer postbite injections, and have more time to seek medical help. Self-treatment: none.

Rift Valley Fever

Present In Kenya.

Spread through Mosquito bites – avoiding being bitten is the best preventative tool.

Symptoms and effects Fever and flulike illness, and it is rarely fatal.

Prevention and treatment Self-treatment: none.

Bilharzia (Schistosomiasis)

Present Throughout Africa with possible exception of Morocco, Algeria and Libya.

Spread through Flukes (minute worms) that are carried by a species of freshwater snail. The flukes are carried inside the snail, which sheds them into slow-moving or still water. The parasites penetrate human skin during paddling or swimming and then migrate to the bladder or bowel. They are passed out via stool or urine and could contaminate fresh water, where the cycle starts again.

Symptoms and effects There might be no symptoms. There might be a transient fever and rash, and advanced cases might have blood in the stool or in the urine.

Prevention and treatment Avoid paddling or swimming in freshwater lakes or slow-running rivers anywhere. A blood test can detect antibodies if you might have been exposed, and treatment is then possible in specialist travel or infectious disease clinics. If left untreated the infection could cause kidney failure or permanent bowel damage. It is not possible for you to infect others. Self-treatment: none.

Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness)

Present Most of West, Central, East and Southern Africa.

Spread through Biite of the tsetse fly.

Symptoms and effects Headache, fever and eventually coma.

Prevention and treatment There is an effective treatment. Self-treatment: none.

Tuberculosis (TB)

Present Throughout Africa.

Spread through Close respiratory contact and occasionally through infected milk or milk products.

Symptoms and effects Can be asymptomatic, only being picked up on a routine chest X-ray. Alternatively, it can cause a cough, weight loss or fever, sometimes months or even years after exposure.

Prevention and treatment BCG vaccination is recommended for those likely to be mixing closely with the local population. It is more important for long stays than for short-term stays. Inoculation with the BCG vaccine is not available in all countries. It is given routinely to many children in developing countries. In some countries, for example the UK, it is given to babies if they will be travelling with their families to areas with a high-risk of TB, and to previously unvaccinated school-age children if they live in areas of higher TB risk (eg multiethnic immigrant populations). The BCG gives a moderate degree of protection against TB. It causes a small permanent scar at the site of injection, and is usually given in a specialised chest clinic. It is a live vaccine and should not be given to pregnant women or immunocompromised individuals. Self-treatment: none.


Present Throughout Africa.

Spread through Food or water contaminated by infected human faeces.

Symptoms and effects Starts usually with a fever or a pink rash on the abdomen. Sometimes septicaemia (blood poisoning) can occur.

Prevention and treatment A typhoid vaccine (typhim Vi, typherix) will give protection for three years. In some countries, the oral vaccine Vivotif is also available. Antibiotics are usually given as treatment, and death is rare unless septicaemia occurs. Self-treatment: none.

West Nile Fever

Present In Egypt.

Spread through This rare disease is spread via mosquito bites.

Symptoms and effects Fever and flulike illness; it is very occasionally fatal.

Prevention and treatment Self-treatment: none.

Yellow Fever

Present West Africa, parts of Central and Eastern Africa. Travellers should carry a certificate as evidence of vaccination if they have recently been in an infected country, to avoid any possible difficulties with immigration. For a full list of these countries visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website ( There is always the possibility that a traveller without a legally required, up-to-date certificate will be vaccinated and detained in isolation at the port of arrival for up to 10 days or possibly repatriated.

Spread through Infected mosquitoes.

Symptoms and effects Range from a flulike illness to severe hepatitis (liver inflammation), jaundice and death.

Prevention and treatment The yellow fever vaccination must be given at a designated clinic and is valid for 10 years. It is a live vaccine and must not be given to immunocompromised or pregnant travellers. Self-treatment: none.

Travellers' Diarrhoea

Present Throughout Africa. Although it's not inevitable that you will get diarrhoea, it's certainly very likely. Diarrhoea is the most common travel-related illness – figures suggest that at least half of all travellers to Africa will get diarrhoea at some stage.

Spread through Sometimes caused by dietary changes, such as increased spices or oils.

Symptoms and effects A few loose stools don't require treatment, but if you start having more than four or five stools a day, you should start taking an antibiotic (usually a quinoline drug, such as ciprofloxacin or norfloxacin) and an antidiarrheal agent (such as loperamide) if you are not within easy reach of a toilet.

Prevention and treatment To help prevent diarrhoea, avoid tap water unless you're sure it's safe to drink. You should also only eat fresh fruits or vegetables if cooked or peeled, and be wary of dairy products that might contain unpasteurised milk. Although freshly cooked food can often be a safe option, plates or serving utensils might be dirty, so you should be highly selective when eating food from street vendors (make sure that cooked food is piping hot all the way through).

If you develop diarrhoea, be sure to drink plenty of fluids, preferably an oral rehydration solution containing water, and salt and sugar. If diarrhoea is bloody, persists for more than 72 hours or is accompanied by fever, shaking chills or severe abdominal pain, you should seek medical attention.

Amoebic Dysentery

Present Throughout Africa.

Spread through Eating/drinking contaminated food and water.

Symptoms and effects Amoebic dysentry causes blood and mucus in the faeces. It can be relatively mild and tends to come on gradually.

Prevention and treatment Seek medical advice as soon as possible as it won't clear up without treatment (which is with specific antibiotics). Self-treatment: none.


Giariasis usually appears a week or more after you have been exposed to the offending parasite. Giardiasis might cause only a short-lived bout of typical travellers' diarrhoea, but it can also cause persistent diarrhoea. Ideally, seek medical advice if you suspect you have giardiasis, but if you are in a remote area you could start a course of antibiotics.

Environmental Hazards

Heat Exhaustion

Causes Occurs following heavy sweating and excessive fluid loss with inadequate replacement of fluids and salt, and is particularly common in hot climates when taking unaccustomed exercise before full acclimatisation.

Symptoms and effects Headache, dizziness and tiredness.

Prevention Dehydration is already happening by the time you feel thirsty – aim to drink sufficient water to produce pale, diluted urine.

Treatment Fluid replacement with water and/or fruit juice, and cooling by cold water and fans. The treatment of the salt loss component consists of consuming salty fluids, as in soup, and adding a little more table salt to foods than usual.


Causes Heat exhaustion is a precursor to the much more serious condition of heatstroke.

Symptoms and effects Damage to the sweating mechanism, with an excessive rise in body temperature; irrational and hyperactive behaviour; and eventually loss of consciousness and death.

Treatment Rapid cooling by spraying the body with water and fanning is ideal. Emergency fluid and electrolyte replacement is often also required by intravenous drip.

Insect Bites & Stings

Mosquitoes might not always carry malaria or dengue fever, but they (and other insects) can cause irritation and infected bites. To avoid these, take the same precautions you would for avoiding malaria. Use DEET-based insect repellents, although these are not the only effective repellents. Excellent clothing treatments are also available; mosquitoes that land on treated clothing will die.

Bee and wasp stings cause real problems only to those who have a severe allergy to the stings (anaphylaxis). If you are one of these people, make sure you carry an 'epipen' – an adrenaline (epinephrine) injection, which you can give yourself. This could save your life.

Sandflies are found around the Mediterranean beaches. They usually only cause a nasty itchy bite but can carry a rare skin disorder called cutaneous leishmaniasis. Prevention of bites with DEET-based repellents is sensible.

Scorpions are frequently found in arid climates. They can cause a painful sting that is sometimes life-threatening. If stung by a scorpion, take a painkiller. Medical treatment should be sought if collapse occurs.

Bed bugs are often found in hostels and cheap hotels. They lead to very itchy, lumpy bites. Spraying the mattress with crawling insect killer after changing bedding will get rid of them.

Scabies is also frequently found in cheap accommodation. These tiny mites live in the skin, particularly between the fingers. They cause an intensely itchy rash. The itch is easily treated with malathion and permethrin lotion from a pharmacy; other members of the household also need treating to avoid spreading scabies, even if they do not show any symptoms.

Snake Bites

Basically, avoid getting bitten! Do not walk barefoot, or stick your hand into holes or cracks. However, 50% of those bitten by venomous snakes are not actually injected with poison (envenomed). If bitten by a snake, do not panic. Immobilise the bitten limb with a splint (such as a stick) and apply a bandage over the site, with firm pressure – similar to bandaging a sprain. Do not apply a tourniquet, or cut or suck the bite. Get the victim to medical help as soon as possible, where antivenom can be given if needed.

Traditional Medicine

At least 80% of the African population relies on traditional medicine, either because they can't afford conventional Western-style medicine, because of prevailing cultural attitudes and beliefs, or simply because (in some cases) it works. It might also be because there's often no other choice.

Rather than attempting to entirely stamp out traditional practices, or simply pretend they are not happening, a positive first step taken by some African countries is the regulation of traditional medicine through the creation of healers' associations and by offering courses on such topics as sanitary practices. Although it remains unlikely that even a basic level of conventional Western-style medicine will be made available to all the people of Africa any time soon, traditional medicine will almost certainly continue to be practised widely throughout the continent.

Tap Water

  • Except in South Africa, never drink tap water unless it has been boiled, filtered or chemically disinfected (such as with iodine tablets).
  • Never drink from streams, rivers and lakes.
  • Avoid drinking from pumps and wells – some do bring pure water to the surface, but the presence of animals can still contaminate supplies.