sights / Military

Kalesi information

Erzurum , Turkey
off Cumhuriyet Caddesi
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For Erzurum's best views, head up to the citadel. It was originally erected by a general of Byzantine emperor Theodosius in the 5th century, perhaps on the site of an earlier Urartu fortification, and subsequently damaged and repaired numerous times. Inside are a mosque and a brick minaret constructed by the Saltuk Turks in the 12th century. The minaret has also been a clock tower since the 19th century: spiral stairs and a step ladder climb up inside for panoramic vistas.