sights / Military

Lonely Planet review

The monumental, black volcanic-stone walls of Kayseri citadel (hisar or kale ) were constructed in the early 13th century, during the Seljuk sultan Alaattin Keykubat's reign. Kayseri saw its first castle in the 3rd century, under the Roman emperor Gordian III, and the Byzantine emperor Justinian made alterations 300 years later. Inside the sturdy walls the citadel is now a buzzing bazaar, chock-a-block full of stalls.