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Riyadh became the Al-Saud capital in 1818 when the Al-Sauds were driven from Dir’aiyah by soldiers loyal to the Ottoman sultan. Riyadh fell to the Al-Rashids in the 1890s, and it was not until the dramatic recapture of the city in 1902 that Riyadh became the Al-Sauds’ undisputed and permanent capital.