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The Chachapoyas culture was conquered but not fully subdued by the Incas a few decades before the Spaniards arrived. When the Europeans showed up, local chief Curaca Huáman supposedly aided them in their conquest to defeat the Inca. Because of the relative lack of Inca influence, the people didn’t learn to speak Quechua and today Spanish is spoken almost exclusively here. Local historians claim that San Juan de la Frontera de las Chachapoyas was the third town founded by the Spaniards in Peru (after Piura and Lima) and it was, at one time, the seventh-largest town in the country.