Most visitors to Nicaragua travel without incident; however, as a developing nation with poor infrastructure and a tropical climate there are certain medical conditions to be aware of to avoid an unnecessary visit to the doctor.
Stomach problems and diarrhea are the result of bacteria, viruses and parasites which may be present in contaminated food and water. Many other illnesses affecting travelers, such as infected bug bites, rashes and heat exhaustion, are the result of Nicaragua's tropical climate.
Other more serious diseases are carried by infected mosquitoes. Bring clothes that provide protection against bites and repellent.
Tap water is potable in cities and larger towns but should be avoided in rural areas and throughout the Región Autónoma Atlántico Sur (South Atlantic Autonomous Region; RAAS) and Región Autónoma Atlántico Norte (North Atlantic Autonomous Region; RAAN). In cheaper restaurants, ice and juices are usually made with untreated water.
Medical attention in Nicaragua is cheap; however, apart from at the best clinics in the capital, it is probably not up to the standards you are used to at home.
In rural areas and small towns, English-speaking doctors are hard to find. Local clinics are fine for dealing with minor illnesses, cuts and sprains, but for anything more serious you should make your way to Managua, where there are several competent private hospitals. If you develop a life-threatening medical problem, you'll want to be evacuated to a country with advanced medical facilities.
There are no obligatory vaccinations for Nicaragua, with the exception of Yellow Fever for travelers arriving from affected areas. However, you may consider getting typhoid and hepatitis shots before you set out. Some travelers also choose to take anti-malaria medications.